E.g., 02/27/2020
E.g., 02/27/2020

State Workforce Data - VA

Virginia

Workforce
2017
2000
1990
Civilian Labor Force

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 1,007,866
% in the civilian labor force 71.4%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 719,616
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 3.9%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 691,719
% change: 2000-2017 107.8%
% change: 1990-2000 74.5%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 5,805,478
% in the civilian labor force 62.8%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,645,840
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 4.7%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 3,473,211
% change: 2000-2011 12.8%
% change: 1990-2000 8.4%
Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 523,188
% change: 2000-2011 66.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 346,595
% change: 1990-2000 4.0%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 332,866
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 5,009,272
% change: 2000-2011 64.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,216,117
% change: 1990-2000 4.3%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 3,077,840
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 283,389
% change: 2000-2011 70.6%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 199,938
% change: 1990-2000 4.6%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 190,722
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 4,557,717
% change: 2000-2011 65.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 2,972,493
% change: 1990-2000 4.5%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 2,839,560
   
   
Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Naturalized Citizens  
Population (16 and older) 541,032
% in the civilian labor force
71.8%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 388,461
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 2.9%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 377,072
Noncitizens  
Population (age 16 and older) 466,834
% in the civilian labor force
71.0%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 331,452
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force
5.1%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 314,647
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign-Born Workers by Period of Entry and Origin Foreign Born
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

687,500
% recent arrivals (i.e., arrived within the last 10 years)
26.6%
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

687,500
Born in Africa 11.2%
Born in Asia 40.9%
Born in Europe 8.9%
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 37.5%
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 1.2%
Born in Oceania 0.2%
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Occupations

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 691,719
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 40.7%
Service occupations 22.4%
Sales and office occupations 16.6%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 11.1%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 9.3%
% Foreign Born by Occupation  
All civilian workers 16.6%
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 15.4%
Service occupations 21.8%
Sales and office occupations 13.0%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 22.5%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 16.5%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 3,473,211
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 44.7%
Service occupations 16.0%
Sales and office occupations 22.2%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 7.6%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 9.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Industries

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 691,719
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 0.4%
Construction 10.2%
Manufacturing 4.5%
Wholesale trade 0.8%
Retail trade 9.4%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 5.0%
Information 1.9%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 6.7%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 18.6%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 18.3%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 11.8%
Other services (except public administration) 6.9%
Public administration 5.4%
% Foreign Born by Industry  
All civilian workers 16.6%
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 8.1%
Construction 25.9%
Manufacturing 10.9%
Wholesale trade 8.1%
Retail trade 15.1%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 18.5%
Information 16.6%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 17.5%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 19.7%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 13.7%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 21.9%
Other services (except public administration) 21.6%
Public administration 10.1%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 3,473,211
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 0.9%
Construction 5.8%
Manufacturing 7.3%
Wholesale trade 1.8%
Retail trade 10.5%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 4.4%
Information 1.9%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 6.3%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 15.1%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 22.9%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 8.4%
Other services (except public administration) 5.0%
Public administration 9.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Class of Worker

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) (%) 691,719
Private wage and salary workers 80.6%
Government workers 12.5%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 6.7%
Unpaid family workers 0.3%
U.S. Born
Class of Worker (civilian workers age 16 and older) (%) 3,473,211
Private wage and salary workers 73.9%
Government workers 21.4%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 4.6%
Unpaid family workers 0.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 25 and older)
 
 
Labor Force Participation by Language Spoken at Home Number
Total Population (native and foreign born) Age 25 and older 5,779,221
In labor force 3,856,437
Not in labor force 1,922,784
Speak only English 4,831,667
In labor force 3,145,316
Not in labor force 1,686,351
Speak Spanish 380,168
In labor force 299,481
Not in labor force 80,687
Speak other Indo-European languages 232,437
In labor force 170,756
Not in labor force 61,681
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 234,891
In labor force 167,424
Not in labor force 67,467
Speak other languages 100,058
In labor force 73,460
Not in labor force 26,598
%
Total Population (native and foreign born) age 25 and older 100%
  In labor force 66.7%
Not in labor force 33.3%
Speak only English 100%
  In labor force 65.1%
Not in labor force 34.9%
Speak Spanish 100%
  In labor force 78.8%
Not in labor force 21.2%
Speak other Indo-European languages 100%
  In labor force 73.5%
Not in labor force 26.5%
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 100%
  In labor force 71.3%
Not in labor force 28.7%
Speak other languages 100%
  In labor force 73.4%
Not in labor force 26.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Workers' Education and English Proficiency

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 25 and older) 639,700
Low-educated workers (i.e., those without a high school diploma) 109,600
% low educated of all workers
17.1%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 292,600
% high educated of all workers
45.7%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 247,400
% LEP among all workers
38.7%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers (age 25 and older) 3,009,700
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 139,500
% low educated of all workers
4.6%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 1,351,600
% high educated of all workers
44.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 22,200
% LEP among all workers
0.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Brain Waste

Note: The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Foreign Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*

Note: Estimates are based on Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's data. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS).

 
Total civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+ 298,800
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
62,900

% of civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+

21.1%
U.S. Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*  
Total civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+ 1,377,400
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
196,600

% of all civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+

14.3%
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2017 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.
  • The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “Civilian Labor Force,” “Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status,” “Occupations,” “Industries,” and “Class of Worker”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.
  • For “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry,” “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth,” and “Workers' Education and English Proficiency (age 25 and older)”: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other workforce data due to different ACS data sources. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are based on Migration Policy Institute (MPI) analysis of the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 ACS data. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are based on MPI analysis of the 2017 ACS.
  • Brain waste estimates are based on Migration Policy Institute (MPI) analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's ACS data. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are based on MPI analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 ACS data. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are based on MPI analysis of the 2017 ACS.