E.g., 04/23/2024
E.g., 04/23/2024
State Language Data - VA
 

Virginia

Language & Education
2022
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,098,543
Speak only English 17.2%
Speak English "very well" 44.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 38.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2022 76.7%
% change: 1990-2000 105.5%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 647,450
Speak only English 21%
Speak English "very well" 50.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 28.7%
Noncitizens 451,093
Speak only English 11.7%
Speak English "very well" 36.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51.7%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 7,103,394
Speak only English 93.1%
Speak English ""very well"" 5.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 13.7%
% change: 1990-2000 45.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 562,217
Speak only English 18.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,057,049
Speak only English 95.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 305,739
Speak only English 23.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,435,745
Speak only English 96.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,380,405
Speak only English 1,159,717
Speak language other than English 220,688
Speak English "very well"
173,456
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
47,232
Speak Spanish 120,560
Speak English "very well"
94,901
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
25,659
Ages 18-64 5,359,490
Speak only English 4,340,700
Speak language other than English 1,018,790
Speak English "very well"
651,700
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
367,090
Speak Spanish 448,478
Speak English "very well"
257,424
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
191,054
65 and Older 1,462,042
Speak only English 1,305,131
Speak language other than English 156,911
Speak English "very well"
76,428
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
80,483
Speak Spanish 42,793
Speak English "very well"
18,296
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
24,497
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 84.0%
Speak language other than English 16.0%
Speak English "very well" 12.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.4%
Speak Spanish 8.7%
Speak English "very well" 6.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.9%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 81.0%
Speak language other than English 19.0%
Speak English "very well" 12.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.8%
Speak Spanish 8.4%
Speak English "very well" 4.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.6%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 89.3%
Speak language other than English 10.7%
Speak English "very well" 5.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.5%
Speak Spanish 2.9%
Speak English "very well" 1.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 8,201,937
Speak only English 6,805,548
Speak language other than English 1,396,389
Spanish 611,831
Speak English "very well" 370,621
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 241,210
French (Including Cajun) 30,101
Speak English "very well" 23,949
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,152
Haitian 8,163
Speak English "very well" 4,907
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,256
Italian 11,870
Speak English "very well" 10,250
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,620
Portuguese 11,529
Speak English "very well" 8,121
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,408
German 18,772
Speak English "very well" 17,478
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,294
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 6,110
Speak English "very well" 4,713
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,397
Russian 16,902
Speak English "very well" 12,262
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,640
Polish 2,243
Speak English "very well" 1,807
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 436
Other Slavic Languages 9,139
Speak English "very well" 6,798
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,341
Armenian 2,292
Speak English "very well" 2,007
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 285
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 37,886
Speak English "very well" 20,658
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17,228
Gujarati 8,946
Speak English "very well" 6,682
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,264
Hindi 33,305
Speak English "very well" 27,322
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,983
Urdu 29,967
Speak English "very well" 18,998
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,969
Punjabi 8,406
Speak English "very well" 5,571
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,835
Bengali 16,769
Speak English "very well" 10,936
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,833
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 28,165
Speak English "very well" 20,086
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,079
Other Indo-European Languages 28,899
Speak English "very well" 19,413
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,486
Telugu 26,544
Speak English "very well" 21,827
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,717
Tamil 16,538
Speak English "very well" 14,900
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,638
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 7,255
Speak English "very well" 6,730
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 525
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 61,532
Speak English "very well" 36,406
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 25,126
Japanese 9,740
Speak English "very well" 6,100
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,640
Korean 56,116
Speak English "very well" 29,320
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26,796
Hmong 478
Speak English "very well" 478
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 50,373
Speak English "very well" 22,602
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27,771
Khmer 5,346
Speak English "very well" 2,319
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,027
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 9,010
Speak English "very well" 4,729
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,281
Other Languages of Asia 16,138
Speak English "very well" 9,634
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,504
Tagalog (including Filipino) 46,440
Speak English "very well" 35,105
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,335
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 7,987
Speak English "very well" 5,715
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,272
Arabic 65,958
Speak English "very well" 45,547
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,411
Hebrew 1,924
Speak English "very well" 1,866
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 42,414
Speak English "very well" 28,021
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,393
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 28,493
Speak English "very well" 21,131
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,362
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 12,042
Speak English "very well" 8,228
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,814
Native Languages of North America 1,396
Speak English "very well" 1,172
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 224
Other and Unspecified Languages 9,370
Speak English "very well" 7,175
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,195
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 83.0%
Field 308 17.0%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 60.6%
Field 310 39.4%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 79.6%
Field 315 20.4%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 60.1%
Field 316 39.9%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 86.4%
Field 319 13.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 70.4%
Field 322 29.6%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 93.1%
Field 325 6.9%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 77.1%
Field 328 22.9%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 72.5%
Field 331 27.5%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 80.6%
Field 334 19.4%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 74.4%
Field 337 25.6%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 87.6%
Field 340 12.4%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 54.5%
Field 343 45.5%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 74.7%
Field 346 25.3%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 82.0%
Field 349 18.0%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 63.4%
Field 352 36.6%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 66.3%
Field 355 33.7%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 65.2%
Field 358 34.8%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 71.3%
Field 361 28.7%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 67.2%
Field 364 32.8%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 82.2%
Field 367 17.8%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 90.1%
Field 370 9.9%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 92.8%
Field 373 7.2%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 59.2%
Field 376 40.8%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 62.6%
Field 379 37.4%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 52.2%
Field 382 47.8%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 44.9%
Field 388 55.1%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 43.4%
Field 391 56.6%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 52.5%
Field 394 47.5%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 59.7%
Field 397 40.3%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 75.6%
Field 400 24.4%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 71.6%
Field 403 28.4%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 69.1%
Field 406 30.9%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 97.0%
Field 409 3.0%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 66.1%
Field 412 33.9%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 74.2%
Field 415 25.8%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 68.3%
Field 418 31.7%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 84.0%
Field 421 16.0%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 76.6%
Field 424 23.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 959,214
Less than high school diploma 16.7%
High school diploma or GED 18.4%
Some college or associate's degree 18.2%
Bachelor's degree 24.1%
Graduate or professional degree 22.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 31.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 17.8%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2022 50.9%
% change: 1990-2000 98.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2022 174.4%
% change: 1990-2000 108.3%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 601,213
Less than high school diploma 10.8%
High school diploma or GED 16.9%
Some college or associate's degree 20%
Bachelor's degree 27.3%
Graduate or professional degree 25%
Noncitizens (%) 358,001
Less than high school diploma 26.6%
High school diploma or GED 20.9%
Some college or associate's degree 15.1%
Bachelor's degree 18.6%
Graduate or professional degree 18.7%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 5,019,568
Less than high school diploma 6.9%
High school diploma or GED 25.0%
Some college or associate's degree 26.8%
Bachelor's degree 23.5%
Graduate or professional degree 17.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -54.5%
% change: 1990-2000 -18.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 71.2%
% change: 1990-2000 36.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 445,592
Less than high school diploma 23.8%
High school diploma or GED 18.3%
Some college or associate's degree 21.2%
Bachelor's degree 20.4%
Graduate or professional degree 16.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 12.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 11.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,218,837
Less than high school diploma 18.0%
High school diploma or GED 26.7%
Some college or associate's degree 26.6%
Bachelor's degree 17.6%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 238,476
Less than high school diploma 22.4%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 24.0%
Bachelor's degree 18.2%
Graduate or professional degree 14.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,730,719
Less than high school diploma 24.9%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 24.3%
Bachelor's degree 15.1%
Graduate or professional degree 8.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2022 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, click here. For ACS methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Matthew Sobek, Daniel Backman, Annie Chen, Grace Cooper, Stephanie Richards, Renae Rogers, and Megan Schouweiler. IPUMS USA: Version 14.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2023. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V14.0​.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.