E.g., 04/07/2020
E.g., 04/07/2020

State Language Data - VA

Virginia

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,055,511
Speak only English 17.4%
Speak English "very well" 45.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 67.5%
% change: 1990-2000 105.5%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 572,666
Speak only English 22.7%
Speak English "very well" 50.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27.1%
Noncitizens 482,845
Speak only English 11%
Speak English "very well" 38.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50.1%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,960,072
Speak only English 93.7%
Speak English ""very well"" 5.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -1.1%
% change: 1990-2000 45.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 562,217
Speak only English 18.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,057,049
Speak only English 95.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 305,739
Speak only English 23.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,435,745
Speak only English 96.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,367,538
Speak only English 1,137,951
Speak language other than English 229,587
Speak English "very well"
188,694
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
40,893
Speak Spanish 129,771
Speak English "very well"
104,570
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
25,201
Ages 18-64 5,329,820
Speak only English 4,382,390
Speak language other than English 947,430
Speak English "very well"
593,323
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
354,107
Speak Spanish 432,676
Speak English "very well"
229,672
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
203,004
65 and Older 1,318,225
Speak only English 1,182,856
Speak language other than English 135,369
Speak English "very well"
67,202
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
68,167
Speak Spanish 35,655
Speak English "very well"
14,934
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
20,721
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 83.2%
Speak language other than English 16.8%
Speak English "very well" 13.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.0%
Speak Spanish 9.5%
Speak English "very well" 7.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.8%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 82.2%
Speak language other than English 17.8%
Speak English "very well" 11.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.6%
Speak Spanish 8.1%
Speak English "very well" 4.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.8%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 89.7%
Speak language other than English 10.3%
Speak English "very well" 5.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.2%
Speak Spanish 2.7%
Speak English "very well" 1.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 8,015,583
Speak only English 6,703,197
Speak language other than English 1,312,386
Spanish 598,102
Speak English "very well" 349,176
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 248,926
French (Including Cajun) 35,316
Speak English "very well" 29,285
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,031
Haitian 5,503
Speak English "very well" 4,661
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 842
Italian 6,830
Speak English "very well" 6,060
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 770
Portuguese 12,495
Speak English "very well" 9,429
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,066
German 25,924
Speak English "very well" 21,926
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,998
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 3,711
Speak English "very well" 3,138
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 573
Russian 15,498
Speak English "very well" 12,280
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,218
Polish 4,441
Speak English "very well" 4,038
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 403
Other Slavic Languages 8,831
Speak English "very well" 7,632
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,199
Armenian 717
Speak English "very well" 634
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 83
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 34,137
Speak English "very well" 23,347
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,790
Gujarati 7,758
Speak English "very well" 6,062
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,696
Hindi 31,160
Speak English "very well" 26,362
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,798
Urdu 27,672
Speak English "very well" 20,419
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,253
Punjabi 9,080
Speak English "very well" 6,177
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,903
Bengali 17,477
Speak English "very well" 12,288
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,189
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 12,827
Speak English "very well" 8,416
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,411
Other Indo-European Languages 19,444
Speak English "very well" 15,526
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,918
Telugu 23,983
Speak English "very well" 19,250
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,733
Tamil 10,957
Speak English "very well" 7,878
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,079
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 6,113
Speak English "very well" 4,670
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,443
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 57,618
Speak English "very well" 32,532
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 25,086
Japanese 10,376
Speak English "very well" 6,953
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,423
Korean 53,702
Speak English "very well" 26,300
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27,402
Hmong N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 53,483
Speak English "very well" 26,910
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26,573
Khmer 5,464
Speak English "very well" 2,669
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,795
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 9,433
Speak English "very well" 5,026
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,407
Other Languages of Asia 11,505
Speak English "very well" 8,127
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,378
Tagalog (including Filipino) 50,888
Speak English "very well" 36,988
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,900
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 4,762
Speak English "very well" 2,639
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,123
Arabic 59,889
Speak English "very well" 43,553
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,336
Hebrew 2,205
Speak English "very well" 2,027
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 178
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 35,686
Speak English "very well" 25,071
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,615
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 23,664
Speak English "very well" 19,635
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,029
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 5,967
Speak English "very well" 4,614
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,353
Native Languages of North America 804
Speak English "very well" 704
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 100
Other and Unspecified Languages 8,964
Speak English "very well" 6,817
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,147
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 83.6%
Field 308 16.4%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.4%
Field 310 41.6%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 82.9%
Field 315 17.1%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 84.7%
Field 316 15.3%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 88.7%
Field 319 11.3%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 75.5%
Field 322 24.5%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 84.6%
Field 325 15.4%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 84.6%
Field 328 15.4%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 79.2%
Field 331 20.8%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 90.9%
Field 334 9.1%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 86.4%
Field 337 13.6%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 88.4%
Field 340 11.6%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 68.4%
Field 343 31.6%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 78.1%
Field 346 21.9%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 84.6%
Field 349 15.4%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 73.8%
Field 352 26.2%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 68.0%
Field 355 32.0%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 70.3%
Field 358 29.7%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 65.6%
Field 361 34.4%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 79.8%
Field 364 20.2%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 80.3%
Field 367 19.7%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 71.9%
Field 370 28.1%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 76.4%
Field 373 23.6%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 56.5%
Field 376 43.5%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 67.0%
Field 379 33.0%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 49.0%
Field 382 51.0%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 50.3%
Field 388 49.7%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 48.8%
Field 391 51.2%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 53.3%
Field 394 46.7%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 70.6%
Field 397 29.4%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 72.7%
Field 400 27.3%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 55.4%
Field 403 44.6%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 72.7%
Field 406 27.3%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 91.9%
Field 409 8.1%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 70.3%
Field 412 29.7%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 83.0%
Field 415 17.0%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 77.3%
Field 418 22.7%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 87.6%
Field 421 12.4%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 76.0%
Field 424 24.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 905,282
Less than high school diploma 18.8%
High school diploma or GED 18.5%
Some college or associate's degree 19.1%
Bachelor's degree 22.8%
Graduate or professional degree 20.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 28.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 17.2%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 60.1%
% change: 1990-2000 98.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 141.7%
% change: 1990-2000 108.3%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 522,173
Less than high school diploma 11.5%
High school diploma or GED 17.4%
Some college or associate's degree 21.9%
Bachelor's degree 26%
Graduate or professional degree 23.3%
Noncitizens (%) 383,109
Less than high school diploma 28.7%
High school diploma or GED 20.1%
Some college or associate's degree 15.2%
Bachelor's degree 18.6%
Graduate or professional degree 17.4%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,916,725
Less than high school diploma 8.5%
High school diploma or GED 25.0%
Some college or associate's degree 27.9%
Bachelor's degree 22.2%
Graduate or professional degree 16.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -44.9%
% change: 1990-2000 -18.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 56.5%
% change: 1990-2000 36.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 445,592
Less than high school diploma 23.8%
High school diploma or GED 18.3%
Some college or associate's degree 21.2%
Bachelor's degree 20.4%
Graduate or professional degree 16.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 12.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 11.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,218,837
Less than high school diploma 18.0%
High school diploma or GED 26.7%
Some college or associate's degree 26.6%
Bachelor's degree 17.6%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 238,476
Less than high school diploma 22.4%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 24.0%
Bachelor's degree 18.2%
Graduate or professional degree 14.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,730,719
Less than high school diploma 24.9%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 24.3%
Bachelor's degree 15.1%
Graduate or professional degree 8.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.