E.g., 11/12/2019
E.g., 11/12/2019

State Language Data - VA

Virginia

Language & Education
2017
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,053,170
Speak only English 16.5%
Speak English "very well" 44.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2017 72.9%
% change: 1990-2000 105.5%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 553,223
Speak only English 21.7%
Speak English "very well" 49.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29%
Noncitizens 499,947
Speak only English 10.8%
Speak English "very well" 39.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50.0%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,914,878
Speak only English 93.7%
Speak English ""very well"" 5.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -6.0%
% change: 1990-2000 45.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 562,217
Speak only English 18.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,057,049
Speak only English 95.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 305,739
Speak only English 23.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,435,745
Speak only English 96.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,366,109
Speak only English 1,140,320
Speak language other than English 225,789
Speak English "very well"
185,343
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
40,446
Speak Spanish 125,190
Speak English "very well"
101,174
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
24,016
Ages 18-64 5,330,335
Speak only English 4,364,068
Speak language other than English 966,267
Speak English "very well"
597,068
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
369,199
Speak Spanish 418,031
Speak English "very well"
215,260
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
202,771
65 and Older 1,271,604
Speak only English 1,150,962
Speak language other than English 120,642
Speak English "very well"
57,506
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
63,136
Speak Spanish 33,076
Speak English "very well"
15,673
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
17,403
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 83.5%
Speak language other than English 16.5%
Speak English "very well" 13.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.0%
Speak Spanish 9.2%
Speak English "very well" 7.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.8%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 81.9%
Speak language other than English 18.1%
Speak English "very well" 11.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.9%
Speak Spanish 7.8%
Speak English "very well" 4.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.8%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 90.5%
Speak language other than English 9.5%
Speak English "very well" 4.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.0%
Speak Spanish 2.6%
Speak English "very well" 1.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 7,968,048
Speak only English 6,655,350
Speak language other than English 1,312,698
Spanish 576,297
Speak English "very well" 332,107
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 244,190
French (Including Cajun) 35,823
Speak English "very well" 29,232
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,591
Haitian 6,290
Speak English "very well" 5,219
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,071
Italian 9,459
Speak English "very well" 7,823
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,636
Portuguese 8,841
Speak English "very well" 6,799
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,042
German 27,461
Speak English "very well" 24,676
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,785
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 5,304
Speak English "very well" 4,613
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 691
Russian 19,716
Speak English "very well" 14,527
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,189
Polish 4,697
Speak English "very well" 4,244
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 453
Other Slavic Languages 8,839
Speak English "very well" 6,457
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,382
Armenian 1,007
Speak English "very well" 664
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 343
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 31,973
Speak English "very well" 20,375
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,598
Gujarati 14,166
Speak English "very well" 10,298
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,868
Hindi 29,431
Speak English "very well" 24,736
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,695
Urdu 37,306
Speak English "very well" 28,265
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,041
Punjabi 8,047
Speak English "very well" 6,345
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,702
Bengali 15,205
Speak English "very well" 10,829
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,376
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 19,508
Speak English "very well" 12,758
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,750
Other Indo-European Languages 22,873
Speak English "very well" 17,732
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,141
Telugu 24,194
Speak English "very well" 19,326
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,868
Tamil 10,860
Speak English "very well" 9,517
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,343
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 5,510
Speak English "very well" 4,640
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 870
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 59,393
Speak English "very well" 31,405
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27,988
Japanese 12,204
Speak English "very well" 8,277
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,927
Korean 62,154
Speak English "very well" 29,602
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 32,552
Hmong 29
Speak English "very well" 29
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 43,673
Speak English "very well" 22,047
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21,626
Khmer 6,645
Speak English "very well" 3,567
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,078
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 9,520
Speak English "very well" 4,758
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,762
Other Languages of Asia 13,604
Speak English "very well" 8,109
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,495
Tagalog (including Filipino) 43,017
Speak English "very well" 30,419
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,598
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 4,062
Speak English "very well" 2,918
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,144
Arabic 53,932
Speak English "very well" 38,228
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,704
Hebrew 1,699
Speak English "very well" 1,556
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 143
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 43,883
Speak English "very well" 28,080
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,803
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 26,288
Speak English "very well" 21,995
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,293
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 5,088
Speak English "very well" 4,212
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 876
Native Languages of North America 739
Speak English "very well" 448
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 291
Other and Unspecified Languages 3,961
Speak English "very well" 3,085
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 876
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 83.5%
Field 308 16.5%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 57.6%
Field 310 42.4%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 81.6%
Field 315 18.4%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 83.0%
Field 316 17.0%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 82.7%
Field 319 17.3%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 76.9%
Field 322 23.1%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 89.9%
Field 325 10.1%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 87.0%
Field 328 13.0%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 73.7%
Field 331 26.3%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 90.4%
Field 334 9.6%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 73.1%
Field 337 26.9%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 65.9%
Field 340 34.1%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 63.7%
Field 343 36.3%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 72.7%
Field 346 27.3%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 84.0%
Field 349 16.0%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 75.8%
Field 352 24.2%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 78.8%
Field 355 21.2%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 71.2%
Field 358 28.8%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 65.4%
Field 361 34.6%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 77.5%
Field 364 22.5%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 79.9%
Field 367 20.1%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 87.6%
Field 370 12.4%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 84.2%
Field 373 15.8%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 52.9%
Field 376 47.1%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 67.8%
Field 379 32.2%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 47.6%
Field 382 52.4%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 50.5%
Field 388 49.5%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 53.7%
Field 391 46.3%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 50.0%
Field 394 50.0%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 59.6%
Field 397 40.4%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 70.7%
Field 400 29.3%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 71.8%
Field 403 28.2%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 70.9%
Field 406 29.1%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 91.6%
Field 409 8.4%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 64.0%
Field 412 36.0%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 83.7%
Field 415 16.3%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 82.8%
Field 418 17.2%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 60.6%
Field 421 39.4%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 77.9%
Field 424 22.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 906,543
Less than high school diploma 18.3%
High school diploma or GED 19.7%
Some college or associate's degree 19.1%
Bachelor's degree 22.3%
Graduate or professional degree 20.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 28.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 17.4%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2017 56.6%
% change: 1990-2000 98.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2017 137.7%
% change: 1990-2000 108.3%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 506,849
Less than high school diploma 10.7%
High school diploma or GED 19%
Some college or associate's degree 22.2%
Bachelor's degree 25.2%
Graduate or professional degree 22.8%
Noncitizens (%) 399,694
Less than high school diploma 28%
High school diploma or GED 20.5%
Some college or associate's degree 15.2%
Bachelor's degree 18.6%
Graduate or professional degree 17.7%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,872,678
Less than high school diploma 8.8%
High school diploma or GED 25.0%
Some college or associate's degree 28.3%
Bachelor's degree 21.9%
Graduate or professional degree 16.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -43.7%
% change: 1990-2000 -18.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 52.6%
% change: 1990-2000 36.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 445,592
Less than high school diploma 23.8%
High school diploma or GED 18.3%
Some college or associate's degree 21.2%
Bachelor's degree 20.4%
Graduate or professional degree 16.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 12.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 11.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,218,837
Less than high school diploma 18.0%
High school diploma or GED 26.7%
Some college or associate's degree 26.6%
Bachelor's degree 17.6%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 238,476
Less than high school diploma 22.4%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 24.0%
Bachelor's degree 18.2%
Graduate or professional degree 14.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,730,719
Less than high school diploma 24.9%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 24.3%
Bachelor's degree 15.1%
Graduate or professional degree 8.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2017 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.