E.g., 04/18/2021
E.g., 04/18/2021
State Language Data - VA
 

Virginia

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,073,330
Speak only English 16.3%
Speak English "very well" 44.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 78.7%
% change: 1990-2000 105.5%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 575,778
Speak only English 21.1%
Speak English "very well" 50.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 28%
Noncitizens 497,552
Speak only English 10.8%
Speak English "very well" 36.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 52.8%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,962,283
Speak only English 93.5%
Speak English ""very well"" 5.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -3.1%
% change: 1990-2000 45.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 562,217
Speak only English 18.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,057,049
Speak only English 95.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 305,739
Speak only English 23.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,435,745
Speak only English 96.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,357,699
Speak only English 1,126,024
Speak language other than English 231,675
Speak English "very well"
187,666
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
44,009
Speak Spanish 139,312
Speak English "very well"
111,809
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
27,503
Ages 18-64 5,319,578
Speak only English 4,340,306
Speak language other than English 979,272
Speak English "very well"
607,260
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
372,012
Speak Spanish 438,306
Speak English "very well"
227,561
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
210,745
65 and Older 1,358,336
Speak only English 1,216,697
Speak language other than English 141,639
Speak English "very well"
69,386
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
72,253
Speak Spanish 38,608
Speak English "very well"
19,075
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
19,533
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 82.9%
Speak language other than English 17.1%
Speak English "very well" 13.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.2%
Speak Spanish 10.3%
Speak English "very well" 8.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.0%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 81.6%
Speak language other than English 18.4%
Speak English "very well" 11.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.0%
Speak Spanish 8.2%
Speak English "very well" 4.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.0%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 89.6%
Speak language other than English 10.4%
Speak English "very well" 5.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.3%
Speak Spanish 2.8%
Speak English "very well" 1.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 8,035,613
Speak only English 6,683,027
Speak language other than English 1,352,586
Spanish 616,226
Speak English "very well" 358,445
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 257,781
French (Including Cajun) 33,050
Speak English "very well" 27,790
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,260
Haitian 7,465
Speak English "very well" 6,321
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,144
Italian 9,568
Speak English "very well" 7,936
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,632
Portuguese 12,073
Speak English "very well" 7,968
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,105
German 23,070
Speak English "very well" 21,088
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,982
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 4,407
Speak English "very well" 3,956
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 451
Russian 15,314
Speak English "very well" 10,701
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,613
Polish 3,262
Speak English "very well" 2,582
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 680
Other Slavic Languages 8,292
Speak English "very well" 6,548
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,744
Armenian 2,288
Speak English "very well" 1,857
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 431
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 32,472
Speak English "very well" 20,901
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,571
Gujarati 8,053
Speak English "very well" 6,079
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,974
Hindi 32,317
Speak English "very well" 27,874
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,443
Urdu 38,489
Speak English "very well" 26,906
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,583
Punjabi 7,039
Speak English "very well" 5,468
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,571
Bengali 13,573
Speak English "very well" 9,259
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,314
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 18,944
Speak English "very well" 12,220
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,724
Other Indo-European Languages 25,455
Speak English "very well" 18,858
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,597
Telugu 27,514
Speak English "very well" 22,917
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,597
Tamil 6,696
Speak English "very well" 6,123
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 573
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 11,049
Speak English "very well" 9,187
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,862
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 66,186
Speak English "very well" 36,448
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29,738
Japanese 9,428
Speak English "very well" 6,611
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,817
Korean 48,255
Speak English "very well" 23,344
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 24,911
Hmong 252
Speak English "very well" 252
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 57,496
Speak English "very well" 26,974
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 30,522
Khmer 8,796
Speak English "very well" 6,242
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,554
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 12,535
Speak English "very well" 7,543
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,992
Other Languages of Asia 13,544
Speak English "very well" 7,531
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,013
Tagalog (including Filipino) 44,005
Speak English "very well" 30,327
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,678
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 4,349
Speak English "very well" 3,509
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 840
Arabic 56,632
Speak English "very well" 40,524
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,108
Hebrew 1,532
Speak English "very well" 1,334
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 198
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 35,162
Speak English "very well" 21,810
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,352
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 23,044
Speak English "very well" 19,810
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,234
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 8,530
Speak English "very well" 6,371
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,159
Native Languages of North America 848
Speak English "very well" 617
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 231
Other and Unspecified Languages 5,376
Speak English "very well" 4,081
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,295
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 83.2%
Field 308 16.8%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.2%
Field 310 41.8%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 84.1%
Field 315 15.9%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 84.7%
Field 316 15.3%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 82.9%
Field 319 17.1%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 66.0%
Field 322 34.0%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 91.4%
Field 325 8.6%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 89.8%
Field 328 10.2%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 69.9%
Field 331 30.1%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 79.2%
Field 334 20.8%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 79.0%
Field 337 21.0%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 81.2%
Field 340 18.8%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 64.4%
Field 343 35.6%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 75.5%
Field 346 24.5%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 86.3%
Field 349 13.7%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 69.9%
Field 352 30.1%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 77.7%
Field 355 22.3%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 68.2%
Field 358 31.8%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 64.5%
Field 361 35.5%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 74.1%
Field 364 25.9%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 83.3%
Field 367 16.7%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 91.4%
Field 370 8.6%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 83.1%
Field 373 16.9%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 55.1%
Field 376 44.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 70.1%
Field 379 29.9%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 48.4%
Field 382 51.6%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 46.9%
Field 388 53.1%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 71.0%
Field 391 29.0%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 60.2%
Field 394 39.8%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 55.6%
Field 397 44.4%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 68.9%
Field 400 31.1%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 80.7%
Field 403 19.3%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 71.6%
Field 406 28.4%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 87.1%
Field 409 12.9%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 62.0%
Field 412 38.0%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 86.0%
Field 415 14.0%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 74.7%
Field 418 25.3%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 72.8%
Field 421 27.2%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 75.9%
Field 424 24.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 937,571
Less than high school diploma 18.3%
High school diploma or GED 18.3%
Some college or associate's degree 19.6%
Bachelor's degree 23.8%
Graduate or professional degree 20.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 29.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 17.7%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 61.7%
% change: 1990-2000 98.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 151.2%
% change: 1990-2000 108.3%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 535,331
Less than high school diploma 10.3%
High school diploma or GED 16.8%
Some college or associate's degree 23%
Bachelor's degree 27.3%
Graduate or professional degree 22.6%
Noncitizens (%) 402,240
Less than high school diploma 28.9%
High school diploma or GED 20.4%
Some college or associate's degree 15%
Bachelor's degree 19.1%
Graduate or professional degree 16.6%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,935,186
Less than high school diploma 8.4%
High school diploma or GED 24.6%
Some college or associate's degree 28.2%
Bachelor's degree 22.1%
Graduate or professional degree 16.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -45.6%
% change: 1990-2000 -18.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 58.0%
% change: 1990-2000 36.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 445,592
Less than high school diploma 23.8%
High school diploma or GED 18.3%
Some college or associate's degree 21.2%
Bachelor's degree 20.4%
Graduate or professional degree 16.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 12.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 11.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,218,837
Less than high school diploma 18.0%
High school diploma or GED 26.7%
Some college or associate's degree 26.6%
Bachelor's degree 17.6%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 238,476
Less than high school diploma 22.4%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 24.0%
Bachelor's degree 18.2%
Graduate or professional degree 14.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,730,719
Less than high school diploma 24.9%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 24.3%
Bachelor's degree 15.1%
Graduate or professional degree 8.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.