E.g., 11/24/2020
E.g., 11/24/2020

State Language Data - NJ

New Jersey

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,020,285
Speak only English 17.1%
Speak English "very well" 40.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 27.2%
% change: 1990-2000 63.3%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 1,191,178
Speak only English 20.6%
Speak English "very well" 44.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 34.9%
Noncitizens 829,107
Speak only English 11.9%
Speak English "very well" 34.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,370,541
Speak only English 84.6%
Speak English ""very well"" 13.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -24.3%
% change: 1990-2000 -0.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,460,077
Speak only English 16.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 37.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 46.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,396,191
Speak only English 87.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 9.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 955,439
Speak only English 21.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 43.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,218,657
Speak only English 89.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 7.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,433,311
Speak only English 989,208
Speak language other than English 444,103
Speak English "very well"
371,966
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
72,137
Speak Spanish 270,317
Speak English "very well"
222,771
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
47,546
Ages 18-64 5,519,226
Speak only English 3,645,841
Speak language other than English 1,873,385
Speak English "very well"
1,144,687
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
728,698
Speak Spanish 986,158
Speak English "very well"
539,875
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
446,283
65 and Older 1,438,289
Speak only English 1,100,017
Speak language other than English 338,272
Speak English "very well"
129,900
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
208,372
Speak Spanish 137,647
Speak English "very well"
40,507
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
97,140
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 69.0%
Speak language other than English 31.0%
Speak English "very well" 26.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.0%
Speak Spanish 18.9%
Speak English "very well" 15.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.3%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 66.1%
Speak language other than English 33.9%
Speak English "very well" 20.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 13.2%
Speak Spanish 17.9%
Speak English "very well" 9.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.1%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 76.5%
Speak language other than English 23.5%
Speak English "very well" 9.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 14.5%
Speak Spanish 9.6%
Speak English "very well" 2.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.8%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 8,390,826
Speak only English 5,735,066
Speak language other than English 2,655,760
Spanish 1,394,122
Speak English "very well" 803,153
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 590,969
French (Including Cajun) 42,857
Speak English "very well" 29,322
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,535
Haitian 55,884
Speak English "very well" 31,047
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 24,837
Italian 61,806
Speak English "very well" 46,057
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,749
Portuguese 77,774
Speak English "very well" 45,870
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 31,904
German 19,305
Speak English "very well" 17,251
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,054
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 8,575
Speak English "very well" 7,227
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,348
Russian 50,056
Speak English "very well" 33,790
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,266
Polish 53,044
Speak English "very well" 30,955
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22,089
Other Slavic Languages 27,400
Speak English "very well" 19,817
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,583
Armenian 3,242
Speak English "very well" 2,583
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 659
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 6,119
Speak English "very well" 4,703
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,416
Gujarati 78,468
Speak English "very well" 47,585
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 30,883
Hindi 79,756
Speak English "very well" 64,503
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,253
Urdu 31,861
Speak English "very well" 22,169
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,692
Punjabi 17,268
Speak English "very well" 10,648
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,620
Bengali 24,224
Speak English "very well" 15,443
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,781
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 19,486
Speak English "very well" 14,466
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,020
Other Indo-European Languages 40,695
Speak English "very well" 28,800
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,895
Telugu 30,509
Speak English "very well" 24,967
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,542
Tamil 32,833
Speak English "very well" 27,331
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,502
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 19,055
Speak English "very well" 16,064
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,991
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 113,877
Speak English "very well" 65,625
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 48,252
Japanese 11,204
Speak English "very well" 6,728
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,476
Korean 76,873
Speak English "very well" 34,667
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42,206
Hmong N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 16,241
Speak English "very well" 8,086
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,155
Khmer 2,030
Speak English "very well" 706
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,324
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 4,299
Speak English "very well" 2,074
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,225
Other Languages of Asia 19,288
Speak English "very well" 11,362
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,926
Tagalog (including Filipino) 79,756
Speak English "very well" 59,341
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,415
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 4,753
Speak English "very well" 3,898
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 855
Arabic 70,847
Speak English "very well" 47,697
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 23,150
Hebrew 15,519
Speak English "very well" 13,646
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,873
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 3,776
Speak English "very well" 2,888
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 888
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 39,048
Speak English "very well" 29,602
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,446
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 7,059
Speak English "very well" 5,171
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,888
Native Languages of North America 902
Speak English "very well" 832
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 70
Other and Unspecified Languages 15,949
Speak English "very well" 10,479
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,470
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 68.3%
Field 308 31.7%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 57.6%
Field 310 42.4%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 68.4%
Field 315 31.6%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 55.6%
Field 316 44.4%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 74.5%
Field 319 25.5%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 59.0%
Field 322 41.0%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 89.4%
Field 325 10.6%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 84.3%
Field 328 15.7%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 67.5%
Field 331 32.5%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 58.4%
Field 334 41.6%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 72.3%
Field 337 27.7%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 79.7%
Field 340 20.3%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 76.9%
Field 343 23.1%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 60.6%
Field 346 39.4%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 80.9%
Field 349 19.1%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 69.6%
Field 352 30.4%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 61.7%
Field 355 38.3%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 63.8%
Field 358 36.2%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 74.2%
Field 361 25.8%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 70.8%
Field 364 29.2%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 81.8%
Field 367 18.2%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 83.2%
Field 370 16.8%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 84.3%
Field 373 15.7%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 57.6%
Field 376 42.4%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 60.0%
Field 379 40.0%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 45.1%
Field 382 54.9%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 49.8%
Field 388 50.2%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 34.8%
Field 391 65.2%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 48.2%
Field 394 51.8%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 58.9%
Field 397 41.1%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 74.4%
Field 400 25.6%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 82.0%
Field 403 18.0%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 67.3%
Field 406 32.7%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 87.9%
Field 409 12.1%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 76.5%
Field 412 23.5%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 75.8%
Field 415 24.2%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 73.3%
Field 418 26.7%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 92.2%
Field 421 7.8%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 65.7%
Field 424 34.3%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,810,511
Less than high school diploma 17.8%
High school diploma or GED 23.7%
Some college or associate's degree 18.1%
Bachelor's degree 22.7%
Graduate or professional degree 17.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 53.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 28.9%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 -5.9%
% change: 1990-2000 19.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 96.7%
% change: 1990-2000 87.2%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 1,114,217
Less than high school diploma 14%
High school diploma or GED 23%
Some college or associate's degree 20.7%
Bachelor's degree 24.6%
Graduate or professional degree 17.8%
Noncitizens (%) 696,294
Less than high school diploma 24%
High school diploma or GED 25%
Some college or associate's degree 13.9%
Bachelor's degree 19.7%
Graduate or professional degree 17.4%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,378,732
Less than high school diploma 6.5%
High school diploma or GED 27.4%
Some college or associate's degree 25.1%
Bachelor's degree 25.7%
Graduate or professional degree 15.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -57.6%
% change: 1990-2000 -26.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 36.6%
% change: 1990-2000 21.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,199,158
Less than high school diploma 28.6%
High school diploma or GED 22.5%
Some college or associate's degree 17.9%
Bachelor's degree 17.8%
Graduate or professional degree 13.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 33.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 22.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,452,754
Less than high school diploma 15.1%
High school diploma or GED 31.1%
Some college or associate's degree 24.3%
Bachelor's degree 19.1%
Graduate or professional degree 10.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 799,122
Less than high school diploma 35.9%
High school diploma or GED 22.7%
Some college or associate's degree 16.5%
Bachelor's degree 14.2%
Graduate or professional degree 10.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 23.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 15.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,348,588
Less than high school diploma 21.0%
High school diploma or GED 32.6%
Some college or associate's degree 21.5%
Bachelor's degree 16.3%
Graduate or professional degree 8.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.