E.g., 06/13/2021
E.g., 06/13/2021
State Language Data - NJ
 

New Jersey

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,058,853
Speak only English 16.5%
Speak English "very well" 41.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 29.3%
% change: 1990-2000 63.3%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 1,209,004
Speak only English 19.7%
Speak English "very well" 46.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 34%
Noncitizens 849,849
Speak only English 11.9%
Speak English "very well" 33.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54.5%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,311,412
Speak only English 84.6%
Speak English ""very well"" 13.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.1%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -32.2%
% change: 1990-2000 -0.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,460,077
Speak only English 16.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 37.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 46.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,396,191
Speak only English 87.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 9.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 955,439
Speak only English 21.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 43.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,218,657
Speak only English 89.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 7.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,426,099
Speak only English 984,440
Speak language other than English 441,659
Speak English "very well"
373,253
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
68,406
Speak Spanish 274,698
Speak English "very well"
229,404
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
45,294
Ages 18-64 5,469,091
Speak only English 3,574,804
Speak language other than English 1,894,287
Speak English "very well"
1,165,192
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
729,095
Speak Spanish 993,047
Speak English "very well"
532,682
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
460,365
65 and Older 1,475,075
Speak only English 1,117,915
Speak language other than English 357,160
Speak English "very well"
146,606
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
210,554
Speak Spanish 147,415
Speak English "very well"
45,391
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
102,024
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 69.0%
Speak language other than English 31.0%
Speak English "very well" 26.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.8%
Speak Spanish 19.3%
Speak English "very well" 16.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.2%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 65.4%
Speak language other than English 34.6%
Speak English "very well" 21.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 13.3%
Speak Spanish 18.2%
Speak English "very well" 9.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.4%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 75.8%
Speak language other than English 24.2%
Speak English "very well" 9.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 14.3%
Speak Spanish 10.0%
Speak English "very well" 3.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.9%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 8,370,265
Speak only English 5,677,159
Speak language other than English 2,693,106
Spanish 1,415,160
Speak English "very well" 807,477
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 607,683
French (Including Cajun) 36,615
Speak English "very well" 27,810
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,805
Haitian 49,811
Speak English "very well" 29,727
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,084
Italian 56,093
Speak English "very well" 43,171
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,922
Portuguese 87,135
Speak English "very well" 46,805
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40,330
German 20,888
Speak English "very well" 18,102
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,786
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 11,042
Speak English "very well" 10,405
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 637
Russian 50,469
Speak English "very well" 34,085
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,384
Polish 58,762
Speak English "very well" 37,595
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21,167
Other Slavic Languages 26,928
Speak English "very well" 19,050
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,878
Armenian 4,209
Speak English "very well" 3,447
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 762
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 6,112
Speak English "very well" 4,959
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,153
Gujarati 81,882
Speak English "very well" 52,067
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29,815
Hindi 85,781
Speak English "very well" 71,832
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,949
Urdu 42,428
Speak English "very well" 33,580
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,848
Punjabi 16,477
Speak English "very well" 10,603
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,874
Bengali 22,730
Speak English "very well" 14,635
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,095
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 24,474
Speak English "very well" 18,948
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,526
Other Indo-European Languages 36,367
Speak English "very well" 28,036
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,331
Telugu 33,438
Speak English "very well" 26,749
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,689
Tamil 27,321
Speak English "very well" 22,172
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,149
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 18,573
Speak English "very well" 14,078
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,495
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 120,979
Speak English "very well" 71,398
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49,581
Japanese 12,975
Speak English "very well" 6,435
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,540
Korean 74,867
Speak English "very well" 33,642
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41,225
Hmong N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 16,051
Speak English "very well" 7,038
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,013
Khmer 1,017
Speak English "very well" 593
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 424
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 2,893
Speak English "very well" 1,208
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,685
Other Languages of Asia 17,697
Speak English "very well" 9,947
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,750
Tagalog (including Filipino) 67,681
Speak English "very well" 54,280
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,401
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 5,247
Speak English "very well" 4,186
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,061
Arabic 70,643
Speak English "very well" 48,034
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22,609
Hebrew 20,034
Speak English "very well" 18,208
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,826
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 5,271
Speak English "very well" 2,942
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,329
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 39,492
Speak English "very well" 31,633
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,859
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 7,701
Speak English "very well" 6,768
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 933
Native Languages of North America 639
Speak English "very well" 442
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 197
Other and Unspecified Languages 17,224
Speak English "very well" 12,964
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,260
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 67.8%
Field 308 32.2%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 57.1%
Field 310 42.9%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 76.0%
Field 315 24.0%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 59.7%
Field 316 40.3%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 77.0%
Field 319 23.0%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 53.7%
Field 322 46.3%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 86.7%
Field 325 13.3%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 94.2%
Field 328 5.8%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 67.5%
Field 331 32.5%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 64.0%
Field 334 36.0%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 70.7%
Field 337 29.3%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 81.9%
Field 340 18.1%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 81.1%
Field 343 18.9%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 63.6%
Field 346 36.4%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 83.7%
Field 349 16.3%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 79.1%
Field 352 20.9%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 64.4%
Field 355 35.6%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 64.4%
Field 358 35.6%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 77.4%
Field 361 22.6%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 77.1%
Field 364 22.9%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 80.0%
Field 367 20.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 81.2%
Field 370 18.8%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 75.8%
Field 373 24.2%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 59.0%
Field 376 41.0%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 49.6%
Field 379 50.4%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 44.9%
Field 382 55.1%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 43.8%
Field 388 56.2%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 58.3%
Field 391 41.7%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 41.8%
Field 394 58.2%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 56.2%
Field 397 43.8%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 80.2%
Field 400 19.8%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 79.8%
Field 403 20.2%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 68.0%
Field 406 32.0%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 90.9%
Field 409 9.1%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 55.8%
Field 412 44.2%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 80.1%
Field 415 19.9%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 87.9%
Field 418 12.1%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 69.2%
Field 421 30.8%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 75.3%
Field 424 24.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,843,733
Less than high school diploma 18.0%
High school diploma or GED 24.4%
Some college or associate's degree 16.5%
Bachelor's degree 23.7%
Graduate or professional degree 17.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 55.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 29.7%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 -3.4%
% change: 1990-2000 19.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 104.0%
% change: 1990-2000 87.2%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 1,138,879
Less than high school diploma 13.5%
High school diploma or GED 22.6%
Some college or associate's degree 19.6%
Bachelor's degree 26.8%
Graduate or professional degree 17.5%
Noncitizens (%) 704,854
Less than high school diploma 25.1%
High school diploma or GED 27.4%
Some college or associate's degree 11.5%
Bachelor's degree 18.9%
Graduate or professional degree 17.1%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,347,496
Less than high school diploma 6.2%
High school diploma or GED 28.0%
Some college or associate's degree 24.6%
Bachelor's degree 25.7%
Graduate or professional degree 15.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -60.1%
% change: 1990-2000 -26.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 36.5%
% change: 1990-2000 21.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,199,158
Less than high school diploma 28.6%
High school diploma or GED 22.5%
Some college or associate's degree 17.9%
Bachelor's degree 17.8%
Graduate or professional degree 13.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 33.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 22.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,452,754
Less than high school diploma 15.1%
High school diploma or GED 31.1%
Some college or associate's degree 24.3%
Bachelor's degree 19.1%
Graduate or professional degree 10.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 799,122
Less than high school diploma 35.9%
High school diploma or GED 22.7%
Some college or associate's degree 16.5%
Bachelor's degree 14.2%
Graduate or professional degree 10.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 23.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 15.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,348,588
Less than high school diploma 21.0%
High school diploma or GED 32.6%
Some college or associate's degree 21.5%
Bachelor's degree 16.3%
Graduate or professional degree 8.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.