E.g., 06/30/2022
E.g., 06/30/2022
State Language Data - CO
 

Colorado

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 543,029
Speak only English 19.6%
Speak English "very well" 37.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 20.6%
% change: 1990-2000 243.2%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 267,079
Speak only English 25.4%
Speak English "very well" 43.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 31.4%
Noncitizens 275,950
Speak only English 14%
Speak English "very well" 31.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54.2%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,888,405
Speak only English 90.4%
Speak English ""very well"" 8.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -21.5%
% change: 1990-2000 40.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 362,151
Speak only English 18.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 28.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,644,134
Speak only English 91.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 6.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 140,088
Speak only English 27.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,893,698
Speak only English 92.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 5.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 929,018
Speak only English 754,139
Speak language other than English 174,879
Speak English "very well"
147,620
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
27,259
Speak Spanish 136,074
Speak English "very well"
114,995
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
21,079
Ages 18-64 3,657,038
Speak only English 3,018,811
Speak language other than English 638,227
Speak English "very well"
414,383
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
223,844
Speak Spanish 428,978
Speak English "very well"
271,474
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
157,504
65 and Older 845,378
Speak only English 752,714
Speak language other than English 92,664
Speak English "very well"
52,348
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
40,316
Speak Spanish 56,232
Speak English "very well"
32,418
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
23,814
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 81.2%
Speak language other than English 18.8%
Speak English "very well" 15.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.9%
Speak Spanish 14.6%
Speak English "very well" 12.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.3%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 82.5%
Speak language other than English 17.5%
Speak English "very well" 11.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.1%
Speak Spanish 11.7%
Speak English "very well" 7.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.3%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 89.0%
Speak language other than English 11.0%
Speak English "very well" 6.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.8%
Speak Spanish 6.7%
Speak English "very well" 3.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.8%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 5,431,434
Speak only English 4,525,664
Speak language other than English 905,770
Spanish 621,284
Speak English "very well" 418,887
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 202,397
French (Including Cajun) 18,294
Speak English "very well" 15,735
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,559
Haitian 240
Speak English "very well" 110
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 130
Italian 4,371
Speak English "very well" 3,680
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 691
Portuguese 4,388
Speak English "very well" 4,040
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 348
German 22,560
Speak English "very well" 19,998
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,562
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 3,692
Speak English "very well" 3,550
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 142
Russian 16,531
Speak English "very well" 10,599
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,932
Polish 3,998
Speak English "very well" 2,962
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,036
Other Slavic Languages 6,477
Speak English "very well" 4,878
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,599
Armenian 1,718
Speak English "very well" 1,526
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 192
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 3,603
Speak English "very well" 2,494
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,109
Gujarati 656
Speak English "very well" 611
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45
Hindi 7,129
Speak English "very well" 5,927
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,202
Urdu 2,488
Speak English "very well" 1,723
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 765
Punjabi 1,241
Speak English "very well" 889
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 352
Bengali 934
Speak English "very well" 934
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 8,867
Speak English "very well" 3,374
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,493
Other Indo-European Languages 11,226
Speak English "very well" 9,344
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,882
Telugu 3,952
Speak English "very well" 3,207
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 745
Tamil 3,831
Speak English "very well" 3,053
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 778
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 3,178
Speak English "very well" 2,860
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 318
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 24,061
Speak English "very well" 12,904
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,157
Japanese 8,890
Speak English "very well" 6,581
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,309
Korean 16,634
Speak English "very well" 9,128
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,506
Hmong 2,266
Speak English "very well" 1,460
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 806
Vietnamese 17,504
Speak English "very well" 8,879
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,625
Khmer 2,667
Speak English "very well" 1,686
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 981
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 6,267
Speak English "very well" 3,351
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,916
Other Languages of Asia 4,275
Speak English "very well" 2,765
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,510
Tagalog (including Filipino) 10,606
Speak English "very well" 7,546
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,060
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 6,158
Speak English "very well" 4,189
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,969
Arabic 11,649
Speak English "very well" 8,044
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,605
Hebrew 3,364
Speak English "very well" 2,517
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 847
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 17,490
Speak English "very well" 10,072
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,418
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 8,503
Speak English "very well" 5,639
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,864
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 6,401
Speak English "very well" 3,303
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,098
Native Languages of North America 3,862
Speak English "very well" 3,541
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 321
Other and Unspecified Languages 4,515
Speak English "very well" 2,365
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,150
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 83.3%
Field 308 16.7%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 67.4%
Field 310 32.6%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 86.0%
Field 315 14.0%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 45.8%
Field 316 54.2%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 84.2%
Field 319 15.8%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 92.1%
Field 322 7.9%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 88.6%
Field 325 11.4%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 96.2%
Field 328 3.8%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 64.1%
Field 331 35.9%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 74.1%
Field 334 25.9%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 75.3%
Field 337 24.7%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 88.8%
Field 340 11.2%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 69.2%
Field 343 30.8%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 93.1%
Field 346 6.9%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 83.1%
Field 349 16.9%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 69.3%
Field 352 30.7%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 71.6%
Field 355 28.4%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 100.0%
Field 358 N
Field 361 100%
Field 361 38.1%
Field 361 61.9%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 83.2%
Field 364 16.8%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 81.1%
Field 367 18.9%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 79.7%
Field 370 20.3%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 90.0%
Field 373 10.0%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 53.6%
Field 376 46.4%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 74.0%
Field 379 26.0%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 54.9%
Field 382 45.1%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 64.4%
Field 385 35.6%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 50.7%
Field 388 49.3%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 63.2%
Field 391 36.8%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 53.5%
Field 394 46.5%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 64.7%
Field 397 35.3%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 71.1%
Field 400 28.9%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 68.0%
Field 403 32.0%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 69.1%
Field 406 30.9%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 74.8%
Field 409 25.2%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 57.6%
Field 412 42.4%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 66.3%
Field 415 33.7%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 51.6%
Field 418 48.4%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 91.7%
Field 421 8.3%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 52.4%
Field 424 47.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 477,719
Less than high school diploma 26.6%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 19.0%
Bachelor's degree 18.1%
Graduate or professional degree 14.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 42.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 9.1%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 18.7%
% change: 1990-2000 174.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 139.1%
% change: 1990-2000 155.2%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 244,193
Less than high school diploma 19.7%
High school diploma or GED 20%
Some college or associate's degree 22.4%
Bachelor's degree 21.3%
Graduate or professional degree 16.6%
Noncitizens (%) 233,526
Less than high school diploma 33.9%
High school diploma or GED 24.3%
Some college or associate's degree 15.3%
Bachelor's degree 14.6%
Graduate or professional degree 11.9%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,497,224
Less than high school diploma 5.0%
High school diploma or GED 20.9%
Some college or associate's degree 30.0%
Bachelor's degree 27.8%
Graduate or professional degree 16.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -32.1%
% change: 1990-2000 -10.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 84.2%
% change: 1990-2000 54.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 266,179
Less than high school diploma 40.3%
High school diploma or GED 18.0%
Some college or associate's degree 17.5%
Bachelor's degree 13.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 29.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 7.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,505,883
Less than high school diploma 10.3%
High school diploma or GED 23.8%
Some college or associate's degree 32.5%
Bachelor's degree 22.3%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 112,839
Less than high school diploma 34.6%
High school diploma or GED 19.9%
Some college or associate's degree 23.1%
Bachelor's degree 12.4%
Graduate or professional degree 10.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 11.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,990,092
Less than high school diploma 14.5%
High school diploma or GED 26.8%
Some college or associate's degree 31.5%
Bachelor's degree 18.3%
Graduate or professional degree 9.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.