E.g., 01/21/2019
E.g., 01/21/2019

State Language Data - CO

Colorado

Language & Education
2017
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 545,120
Speak only English 18.8%
Speak English "very well" 38.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2017 19.8%
% change: 1990-2000 243.2%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 233,433
Speak only English 26.9%
Speak English "very well" 43.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29.6%
Noncitizens 311,687
Speak only English 12.8%
Speak English "very well" 35%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 52.2%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,729,441
Speak only English 90.5%
Speak English ""very well"" 8.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -19.8%
% change: 1990-2000 40.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 362,151
Speak only English 18.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 28.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,644,134
Speak only English 91.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 6.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 140,088
Speak only English 27.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,893,698
Speak only English 92.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 5.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 929,766
Speak only English 739,797
Speak language other than English 189,969
Speak English "very well"
160,469
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
29,500
Speak Spanish 144,828
Speak English "very well"
125,021
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
19,807
Ages 18-64 3,571,096
Speak only English 2,956,560
Speak language other than English 614,536
Speak English "very well"
389,178
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
225,358
Speak Spanish 415,062
Speak English "very well"
255,129
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
159,933
65 and Older 773,699
Speak only English 687,337
Speak language other than English 86,362
Speak English "very well"
50,118
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
36,244
Speak Spanish 50,054
Speak English "very well"
29,975
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
20,079
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 79.6%
Speak language other than English 20.4%
Speak English "very well" 17.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.2%
Speak Spanish 15.6%
Speak English "very well" 13.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.1%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 82.8%
Speak language other than English 17.2%
Speak English "very well" 10.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.3%
Speak Spanish 11.6%
Speak English "very well" 7.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.5%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 88.8%
Speak language other than English 11.2%
Speak English "very well" 6.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.7%
Speak Spanish 6.5%
Speak English "very well" 3.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 5,274,561
Speak only English 4,383,694
Speak language other than English 890,867
Spanish 609,944
Speak English "very well" 410,125
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 199,819
French (Including Cajun) 16,844
Speak English "very well" 13,961
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,883
Haitian 1,767
Speak English "very well" 805
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 962
Italian 3,587
Speak English "very well" 2,747
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 840
Portuguese 3,781
Speak English "very well" 2,802
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 979
German 25,616
Speak English "very well" 22,576
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,040
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 2,873
Speak English "very well" 2,782
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 91
Russian 14,464
Speak English "very well" 8,905
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,559
Polish 4,910
Speak English "very well" 3,861
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,049
Other Slavic Languages 7,485
Speak English "very well" 5,082
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,403
Armenian 954
Speak English "very well" 455
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 499
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 4,805
Speak English "very well" 3,355
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,450
Gujarati 1,900
Speak English "very well" 1,614
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 286
Hindi 6,858
Speak English "very well" 5,686
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,172
Urdu 2,576
Speak English "very well" 1,764
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 812
Punjabi 1,956
Speak English "very well" 1,141
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 815
Bengali 1,394
Speak English "very well" 1,350
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 44
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 8,901
Speak English "very well" 4,658
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,243
Other Indo-European Languages 8,868
Speak English "very well" 7,677
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,191
Telugu 3,580
Speak English "very well" 3,079
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 501
Tamil 4,382
Speak English "very well" 3,191
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,191
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 2,277
Speak English "very well" 1,465
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 812
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 22,655
Speak English "very well" 11,195
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,460
Japanese 5,877
Speak English "very well" 4,082
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,795
Korean 10,775
Speak English "very well" 6,290
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,485
Hmong 3,533
Speak English "very well" 2,218
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,315
Vietnamese 23,740
Speak English "very well" 10,426
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,314
Khmer 3,455
Speak English "very well" 1,998
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,457
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 3,280
Speak English "very well" 1,746
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,534
Other Languages of Asia 10,787
Speak English "very well" 4,603
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,184
Tagalog (including Filipino) 6,649
Speak English "very well" 4,604
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,045
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 3,820
Speak English "very well" 2,646
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,174
Arabic 15,520
Speak English "very well" 10,701
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,819
Hebrew 2,119
Speak English "very well" 2,022
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 97
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 14,524
Speak English "very well" 8,667
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,857
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 7,462
Speak English "very well" 6,767
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 695
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 5,655
Speak English "very well" 3,804
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,851
Native Languages of North America 6,353
Speak English "very well" 5,588
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 765
Other and Unspecified Languages 4,941
Speak English "very well" 3,327
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,614
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 83.1%
Field 308 16.9%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 67.2%
Field 310 32.8%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 82.9%
Field 315 17.1%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 45.6%
Field 316 54.4%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 76.6%
Field 319 23.4%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 74.1%
Field 322 25.9%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 88.1%
Field 325 11.9%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 96.8%
Field 328 3.2%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 61.6%
Field 331 38.4%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 78.6%
Field 334 21.4%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 67.9%
Field 337 32.1%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 47.7%
Field 340 52.3%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 69.8%
Field 343 30.2%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 84.9%
Field 346 15.1%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 82.9%
Field 349 17.1%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 68.5%
Field 352 31.5%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 58.3%
Field 355 41.7%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 96.8%
Field 358 3.2%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 52.3%
Field 361 47.7%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 86.6%
Field 364 13.4%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 86.0%
Field 367 14.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 72.8%
Field 370 27.2%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 64.3%
Field 373 35.7%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 49.4%
Field 376 50.6%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 69.5%
Field 379 30.5%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 58.4%
Field 382 41.6%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 62.8%
Field 385 37.2%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 43.9%
Field 388 56.1%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 57.8%
Field 391 42.2%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 53.2%
Field 394 46.8%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 42.7%
Field 397 57.3%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 69.2%
Field 400 30.8%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 69.3%
Field 403 30.7%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 68.9%
Field 406 31.1%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 95.4%
Field 409 4.6%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 59.7%
Field 412 40.3%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 90.7%
Field 415 9.3%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 67.3%
Field 418 32.7%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 88.0%
Field 421 12.0%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 67.3%
Field 424 32.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 464,350
Less than high school diploma 29.9%
High school diploma or GED 22.7%
Some college or associate's degree 17.4%
Bachelor's degree 16.7%
Graduate or professional degree 13.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 43.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.8%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2017 29.7%
% change: 1990-2000 174.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2017 115.8%
% change: 1990-2000 155.2%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 208,879
Less than high school diploma 17.7%
High school diploma or GED 19.7%
Some college or associate's degree 22.8%
Bachelor's degree 22.8%
Graduate or professional degree 17%
Noncitizens (%) 255,471
Less than high school diploma 39.9%
High school diploma or GED 25.1%
Some college or associate's degree 13%
Bachelor's degree 11.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.3%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,357,718
Less than high school diploma 5.4%
High school diploma or GED 21.2%
Some college or associate's degree 30.7%
Bachelor's degree 27.3%
Graduate or professional degree 15.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -29.9%
% change: 1990-2000 -10.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 71.6%
% change: 1990-2000 54.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 266,179
Less than high school diploma 40.3%
High school diploma or GED 18.0%
Some college or associate's degree 17.5%
Bachelor's degree 13.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 29.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 7.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,505,883
Less than high school diploma 10.3%
High school diploma or GED 23.8%
Some college or associate's degree 32.5%
Bachelor's degree 22.3%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 112,839
Less than high school diploma 34.6%
High school diploma or GED 19.9%
Some college or associate's degree 23.1%
Bachelor's degree 12.4%
Graduate or professional degree 10.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 11.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,990,092
Less than high school diploma 14.5%
High school diploma or GED 26.8%
Some college or associate's degree 31.5%
Bachelor's degree 18.3%
Graduate or professional degree 9.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2017 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.