E.g., 08/15/2020
E.g., 08/15/2020

State Language Data - CO

Colorado

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 545,277
Speak only English 18.3%
Speak English "very well" 37.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 44.1%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 24.4%
% change: 1990-2000 243.2%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 246,876
Speak only English 26%
Speak English "very well" 42.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 31.5%
Noncitizens 298,401
Speak only English 12%
Speak English "very well" 33.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,814,645
Speak only English 90.6%
Speak English ""very well"" 8.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.4%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -11.8%
% change: 1990-2000 40.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 362,151
Speak only English 18.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 28.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,644,134
Speak only English 91.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 6.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 140,088
Speak only English 27.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,893,698
Speak only English 92.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 5.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 931,096
Speak only English 746,037
Speak language other than English 185,059
Speak English "very well"
155,453
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
29,606
Speak Spanish 143,668
Speak English "very well"
120,908
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
22,760
Ages 18-64 3,620,971
Speak only English 2,995,976
Speak language other than English 624,995
Speak English "very well"
385,056
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
239,939
Speak Spanish 427,124
Speak English "very well"
250,967
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
176,157
65 and Older 807,855
Speak only English 720,725
Speak language other than English 87,130
Speak English "very well"
50,689
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
36,441
Speak Spanish 52,223
Speak English "very well"
32,752
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
19,471
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 80.1%
Speak language other than English 19.9%
Speak English "very well" 16.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.2%
Speak Spanish 15.4%
Speak English "very well" 13.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.4%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 82.7%
Speak language other than English 17.3%
Speak English "very well" 10.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.6%
Speak Spanish 11.8%
Speak English "very well" 6.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.9%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 89.2%
Speak language other than English 10.8%
Speak English "very well" 6.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.5%
Speak Spanish 6.5%
Speak English "very well" 4.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 5,359,922
Speak only English 4,462,738
Speak language other than English 897,184
Spanish 623,015
Speak English "very well" 404,627
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 218,388
French (Including Cajun) 19,690
Speak English "very well" 15,420
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,270
Haitian 801
Speak English "very well" 351
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 450
Italian 5,640
Speak English "very well" 4,408
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,232
Portuguese 3,728
Speak English "very well" 3,372
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 356
German 23,793
Speak English "very well" 20,118
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,675
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 3,962
Speak English "very well" 3,641
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 321
Russian 16,259
Speak English "very well" 10,721
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,538
Polish 4,805
Speak English "very well" 3,843
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 962
Other Slavic Languages 7,088
Speak English "very well" 5,469
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,619
Armenian 533
Speak English "very well" 533
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 8,291
Speak English "very well" 5,196
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,095
Gujarati 1,704
Speak English "very well" 1,050
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 654
Hindi 7,998
Speak English "very well" 6,106
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,892
Urdu 1,583
Speak English "very well" 1,383
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 200
Punjabi 1,243
Speak English "very well" 992
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 251
Bengali 3,371
Speak English "very well" 2,397
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 974
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 6,873
Speak English "very well" 3,721
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,152
Other Indo-European Languages 9,941
Speak English "very well" 8,236
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,705
Telugu 3,082
Speak English "very well" 2,489
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 593
Tamil 2,891
Speak English "very well" 2,645
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 246
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 4,660
Speak English "very well" 3,897
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 763
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 22,779
Speak English "very well" 11,703
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,076
Japanese 5,890
Speak English "very well" 3,840
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,050
Korean 14,331
Speak English "very well" 6,799
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,532
Hmong 2,491
Speak English "very well" 1,871
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 620
Vietnamese 17,996
Speak English "very well" 8,529
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,467
Khmer 1,545
Speak English "very well" 694
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 851
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 4,818
Speak English "very well" 3,182
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,636
Other Languages of Asia 7,033
Speak English "very well" 3,744
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,289
Tagalog (including Filipino) 7,398
Speak English "very well" 5,662
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,736
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 4,930
Speak English "very well" 3,092
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,838
Arabic 13,789
Speak English "very well" 8,880
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,909
Hebrew 1,696
Speak English "very well" 1,587
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 109
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 15,436
Speak English "very well" 7,925
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,511
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 3,765
Speak English "very well" 2,838
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 927
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 3,724
Speak English "very well" 2,823
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 901
Native Languages of North America 3,745
Speak English "very well" 3,456
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 289
Other and Unspecified Languages 4,867
Speak English "very well" 3,958
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 909
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 83.3%
Field 308 16.7%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 64.9%
Field 310 35.1%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 78.3%
Field 315 21.7%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 43.8%
Field 316 56.2%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 78.2%
Field 319 21.8%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 90.5%
Field 322 9.5%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 84.6%
Field 325 15.4%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 91.9%
Field 328 8.1%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 65.9%
Field 331 34.1%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 80.0%
Field 334 20.0%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 77.2%
Field 337 22.8%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 100.0%
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 62.7%
Field 343 37.3%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 61.6%
Field 346 38.4%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 76.3%
Field 349 23.7%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 87.4%
Field 352 12.6%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 79.8%
Field 355 20.2%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 71.1%
Field 358 28.9%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 54.1%
Field 361 45.9%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 82.8%
Field 364 17.2%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 80.8%
Field 367 19.2%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 91.5%
Field 370 8.5%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 83.6%
Field 373 16.4%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 51.4%
Field 376 48.6%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 65.2%
Field 379 34.8%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 47.4%
Field 382 52.6%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 75.1%
Field 385 24.9%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 47.4%
Field 388 52.6%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 44.9%
Field 391 55.1%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 66.0%
Field 394 34.0%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 53.2%
Field 397 46.8%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 76.5%
Field 400 23.5%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 62.7%
Field 403 37.3%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 64.4%
Field 406 35.6%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 93.6%
Field 409 6.4%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 51.3%
Field 412 48.7%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 75.4%
Field 415 24.6%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 75.8%
Field 418 24.2%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 92.3%
Field 421 7.7%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 81.3%
Field 424 18.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 472,216
Less than high school diploma 29.0%
High school diploma or GED 21.6%
Some college or associate's degree 19.0%
Bachelor's degree 16.6%
Graduate or professional degree 13.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 43.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.8%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 27.7%
% change: 1990-2000 174.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 122.7%
% change: 1990-2000 155.2%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 224,288
Less than high school diploma 18.9%
High school diploma or GED 20.5%
Some college or associate's degree 22.8%
Bachelor's degree 20.9%
Graduate or professional degree 16.9%
Noncitizens (%) 247,928
Less than high school diploma 38.1%
High school diploma or GED 22.6%
Some college or associate's degree 15.6%
Bachelor's degree 12.7%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,428,071
Less than high school diploma 5.3%
High school diploma or GED 20.7%
Some college or associate's degree 30.8%
Bachelor's degree 27.3%
Graduate or professional degree 15.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -30.0%
% change: 1990-2000 -10.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 77.1%
% change: 1990-2000 54.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 266,179
Less than high school diploma 40.3%
High school diploma or GED 18.0%
Some college or associate's degree 17.5%
Bachelor's degree 13.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 29.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 7.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,505,883
Less than high school diploma 10.3%
High school diploma or GED 23.8%
Some college or associate's degree 32.5%
Bachelor's degree 22.3%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 112,839
Less than high school diploma 34.6%
High school diploma or GED 19.9%
Some college or associate's degree 23.1%
Bachelor's degree 12.4%
Graduate or professional degree 10.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 11.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,990,092
Less than high school diploma 14.5%
High school diploma or GED 26.8%
Some college or associate's degree 31.5%
Bachelor's degree 18.3%
Graduate or professional degree 9.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.