E.g., 08/16/2018
E.g., 08/16/2018

State Language Data - CO

Colorado

Language & Education
2016
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 538,810
Speak only English 17.5%
Speak English "very well" 34.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 47.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2016 33.3%
% change: 1990-2000 243.2%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2012-2016 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2016 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 215,441
Speak only English 27.4%
Speak English "very well" 41.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 31.3%
Noncitizens 323,369
Speak only English 10.9%
Speak English "very well" 30.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58.9%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,666,664
Speak only English 90.5%
Speak English ""very well"" 8.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -21.8%
% change: 1990-2000 40.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 362,151
Speak only English 18.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 28.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,644,134
Speak only English 91.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 6.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 140,088
Speak only English 27.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,893,698
Speak only English 92.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 5.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 925,441
Speak only English 733,268
Speak language other than English 192,173
Speak English "very well"
164,286
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
27,887
Speak Spanish 154,288
Speak English "very well"
132,702
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
21,586
Ages 18-64 3,536,977
Speak only English 2,923,248
Speak language other than English 613,729
Speak English "very well"
361,348
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
252,381
Speak Spanish 422,507
Speak English "very well"
237,904
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
184,603
65 and Older 743,056
Speak only English 659,756
Speak language other than English 83,300
Speak English "very well"
47,789
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
35,511
Speak Spanish 49,527
Speak English "very well"
30,129
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
19,398
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 79.2%
Speak language other than English 20.8%
Speak English "very well" 17.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.0%
Speak Spanish 16.7%
Speak English "very well" 14.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.3%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 82.6%
Speak language other than English 17.4%
Speak English "very well" 10.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.1%
Speak Spanish 11.9%
Speak English "very well" 6.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.2%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 88.8%
Speak language other than English 11.2%
Speak English "very well" 6.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.8%
Speak Spanish 6.7%
Speak English "very well" 4.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2012-2016 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2016 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 5,205,474
Speak only English 4,316,272
Speak language other than English 889,202
Spanish 626,322
Speak English "very well" 400,735
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 225,587
French (Including Cajun) 19,423
Speak English "very well" 14,640
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,783
Haitian 207
Speak English "very well" 156
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51
Italian 4,691
Speak English "very well" 3,860
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 831
Portuguese 4,105
Speak English "very well" 3,369
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 736
German 22,181
Speak English "very well" 19,314
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,867
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 1,855
Speak English "very well" 1,721
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 134
Russian 13,592
Speak English "very well" 8,662
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,930
Polish 4,372
Speak English "very well" 3,400
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 972
Other Slavic Languages 5,419
Speak English "very well" 4,160
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,259
Armenian 222
Speak English "very well" 24
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 198
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 4,896
Speak English "very well" 3,235
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,661
Gujarati 2,546
Speak English "very well" 2,337
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 209
Hindi 7,916
Speak English "very well" 6,687
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,229
Urdu 908
Speak English "very well" 771
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 137
Punjabi 1,821
Speak English "very well" 1,677
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 144
Bengali 1,216
Speak English "very well" 923
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 293
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 5,652
Speak English "very well" 2,758
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,894
Other Indo-European Languages 9,968
Speak English "very well" 7,897
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,071
Telugu 5,658
Speak English "very well" 4,610
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,048
Tamil 1,927
Speak English "very well" 1,592
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 335
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 2,002
Speak English "very well" 1,489
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 513
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 27,291
Speak English "very well" 11,837
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,454
Japanese 6,582
Speak English "very well" 4,209
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,373
Korean 15,183
Speak English "very well" 8,020
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,163
Hmong 3,913
Speak English "very well" 3,027
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 886
Vietnamese 19,691
Speak English "very well" 8,002
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,689
Khmer 1,811
Speak English "very well" 576
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,235
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 5,975
Speak English "very well" 2,843
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,132
Other Languages of Asia 5,431
Speak English "very well" 3,164
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,267
Tagalog (including Filipino) 8,751
Speak English "very well" 5,746
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,005
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 5,714
Speak English "very well" 3,662
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,052
Arabic 9,104
Speak English "very well" 5,656
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,448
Hebrew 1,996
Speak English "very well" 1,328
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 668
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 12,900
Speak English "very well" 7,486
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,414
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 5,440
Speak English "very well" 4,644
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 796
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 4,583
Speak English "very well" 3,172
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,411
Native Languages of North America 4,363
Speak English "very well" 3,181
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,182
Other and Unspecified Languages 3,575
Speak English "very well" 2,853
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 722
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 82.9%
Field 308 17.1%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 64.0%
Field 310 36.0%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 75.4%
Field 315 24.6%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 75.4%
Field 316 24.6%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 82.3%
Field 319 17.7%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 82.1%
Field 322 17.9%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 87.1%
Field 325 12.9%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 92.8%
Field 328 7.2%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 63.7%
Field 331 36.3%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 77.8%
Field 334 22.2%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 76.8%
Field 337 23.2%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 10.8%
Field 340 89.2%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 66.1%
Field 343 33.9%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 91.8%
Field 346 8.2%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 84.5%
Field 349 15.5%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 84.9%
Field 352 15.1%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 92.1%
Field 355 7.9%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 75.9%
Field 358 24.1%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 48.8%
Field 361 51.2%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 79.2%
Field 364 20.8%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 81.5%
Field 367 18.5%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 82.6%
Field 370 17.4%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 74.4%
Field 373 25.6%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 43.4%
Field 376 56.6%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 63.9%
Field 379 36.1%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 52.8%
Field 382 47.2%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 77.4%
Field 385 22.6%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 40.6%
Field 388 59.4%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 31.8%
Field 391 68.2%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 47.6%
Field 394 52.4%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 58.3%
Field 397 41.7%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 65.7%
Field 400 34.3%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 64.1%
Field 403 35.9%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 62.1%
Field 406 37.9%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 66.5%
Field 409 33.5%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 58.0%
Field 412 42.0%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 85.4%
Field 415 14.6%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 69.2%
Field 418 30.8%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 72.9%
Field 421 27.1%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 79.8%
Field 424 20.2%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 462,384
Less than high school diploma 31.7%
High school diploma or GED 24.8%
Some college or associate's degree 16.3%
Bachelor's degree 15.2%
Graduate or professional degree 12.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 45.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.4%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2016 36.7%
% change: 1990-2000 174.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2016 95.3%
% change: 1990-2000 155.2%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2012-2016 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2016 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 192,952
Less than high school diploma 18.7%
High school diploma or GED 21.6%
Some college or associate's degree 22.6%
Bachelor's degree 20.4%
Graduate or professional degree 16.7%
Noncitizens (%) 269,432
Less than high school diploma 41%
High school diploma or GED 27%
Some college or associate's degree 11.8%
Bachelor's degree 11.5%
Graduate or professional degree 8.7%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,283,122
Less than high school diploma 5.3%
High school diploma or GED 21.6%
Some college or associate's degree 31.5%
Bachelor's degree 26.3%
Graduate or professional degree 15.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -32.4%
% change: 1990-2000 -10.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 63.4%
% change: 1990-2000 54.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 266,179
Less than high school diploma 40.3%
High school diploma or GED 18.0%
Some college or associate's degree 17.5%
Bachelor's degree 13.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 29.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 7.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,505,883
Less than high school diploma 10.3%
High school diploma or GED 23.8%
Some college or associate's degree 32.5%
Bachelor's degree 22.3%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 112,839
Less than high school diploma 34.6%
High school diploma or GED 19.9%
Some college or associate's degree 23.1%
Bachelor's degree 12.4%
Graduate or professional degree 10.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 11.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,990,092
Less than high school diploma 14.5%
High school diploma or GED 26.8%
Some college or associate's degree 31.5%
Bachelor's degree 18.3%
Graduate or professional degree 9.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2016 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2012-2016 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2016 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2012-2016 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2016 ACS.