E.g., 08/09/2022
E.g., 08/09/2022
State Language Data - AZ
 

Arizona

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 971,712
Speak only English 17.6%
Speak English "very well" 38.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 43.7%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 17.4%
% change: 1990-2000 172.0%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 438,813
Speak only English 22.5%
Speak English "very well" 43.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 34.2%
Noncitizens 532,899
Speak only English 13.5%
Speak English "very well" 34.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,879,298
Speak only English 81.9%
Speak English ""very well"" 15.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -28.1%
% change: 1990-2000 26.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 643,640
Speak only English 15.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 28.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 56.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,109,084
Speak only English 83.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 12.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 271,380
Speak only English 20.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 30.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,090,890
Speak only English 84.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 11.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,211,941
Speak only English 869,925
Speak language other than English 342,016
Speak English "very well"
297,791
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
44,225
Speak Spanish 281,052
Speak English "very well"
246,749
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
34,303
Ages 18-64 4,331,828
Speak only English 3,025,175
Speak language other than English 1,306,653
Speak English "very well"
894,758
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
411,895
Speak Spanish 975,918
Speak English "very well"
650,970
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
324,948
65 and Older 1,307,241
Speak only English 1,092,824
Speak language other than English 214,417
Speak English "very well"
117,745
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
96,672
Speak Spanish 137,100
Speak English "very well"
76,246
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
60,854
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 71.8%
Speak language other than English 28.2%
Speak English "very well" 24.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.6%
Speak Spanish 23.2%
Speak English "very well" 20.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.8%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 69.8%
Speak language other than English 30.2%
Speak English "very well" 20.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.5%
Speak Spanish 22.5%
Speak English "very well" 15.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.5%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 83.6%
Speak language other than English 16.4%
Speak English "very well" 9.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.4%
Speak Spanish 10.5%
Speak English "very well" 5.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 6,851,010
Speak only English 4,987,924
Speak language other than English 1,863,086
Spanish 1,394,070
Speak English "very well" 973,965
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 420,105
French (Including Cajun) 15,432
Speak English "very well" 12,242
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,190
Haitian 815
Speak English "very well" 569
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 246
Italian 8,974
Speak English "very well" 7,127
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,847
Portuguese 7,128
Speak English "very well" 5,693
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,435
German 14,907
Speak English "very well" 13,337
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,570
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 3,336
Speak English "very well" 3,161
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 175
Russian 7,612
Speak English "very well" 5,206
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,406
Polish 5,611
Speak English "very well" 3,906
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,705
Other Slavic Languages 14,550
Speak English "very well" 10,265
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,285
Armenian 1,963
Speak English "very well" 1,282
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 681
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 9,027
Speak English "very well" 5,639
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,388
Gujarati 5,077
Speak English "very well" 3,502
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,575
Hindi 16,881
Speak English "very well" 14,253
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,628
Urdu 2,671
Speak English "very well" 2,232
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 439
Punjabi 6,734
Speak English "very well" 5,444
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,290
Bengali 3,652
Speak English "very well" 3,115
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 537
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 2,313
Speak English "very well" 1,802
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 511
Other Indo-European Languages 15,354
Speak English "very well" 12,497
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,857
Telugu 10,898
Speak English "very well" 9,205
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,693
Tamil 7,512
Speak English "very well" 6,121
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,391
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 3,449
Speak English "very well" 2,809
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 640
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 33,431
Speak English "very well" 20,079
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,352
Japanese 6,932
Speak English "very well" 4,846
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,086
Korean 10,823
Speak English "very well" 5,255
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,568
Hmong 96
Speak English "very well" 96
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 21,007
Speak English "very well" 10,382
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,625
Khmer 2,162
Speak English "very well" 992
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,170
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 5,414
Speak English "very well" 2,802
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,612
Other Languages of Asia 8,801
Speak English "very well" 3,778
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,023
Tagalog (including Filipino) 29,863
Speak English "very well" 23,247
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,616
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 9,216
Speak English "very well" 5,537
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,679
Arabic 23,763
Speak English "very well" 13,274
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,489
Hebrew 2,609
Speak English "very well" 2,326
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 283
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 10,924
Speak English "very well" 6,750
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,174
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 5,746
Speak English "very well" 4,500
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,246
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 10,002
Speak English "very well" 7,179
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,823
Native Languages of North America 120,872
Speak English "very well" 93,305
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27,567
Other and Unspecified Languages 3,459
Speak English "very well" 2,574
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 885
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 72.8%
Field 308 27.2%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 69.9%
Field 310 30.1%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 79.3%
Field 315 20.7%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 69.8%
Field 316 30.2%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 79.4%
Field 319 20.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 79.9%
Field 322 20.1%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 89.5%
Field 325 10.5%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 94.8%
Field 328 5.2%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 68.4%
Field 331 31.6%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 69.6%
Field 334 30.4%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 70.5%
Field 337 29.5%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 65.3%
Field 340 34.7%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 62.5%
Field 343 37.5%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 69.0%
Field 346 31.0%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 84.4%
Field 349 15.6%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 83.6%
Field 352 16.4%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 80.8%
Field 355 19.2%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 85.3%
Field 358 14.7%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 77.9%
Field 361 22.1%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 81.4%
Field 364 18.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 84.5%
Field 367 15.5%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 81.5%
Field 370 18.5%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 81.4%
Field 373 18.6%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 60.1%
Field 376 39.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 69.9%
Field 379 30.1%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 48.6%
Field 382 51.4%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 49.4%
Field 388 50.6%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 45.9%
Field 391 54.1%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 51.8%
Field 394 48.2%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 42.9%
Field 397 57.1%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 77.8%
Field 400 22.2%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 60.1%
Field 403 39.9%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 55.9%
Field 406 44.1%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 89.2%
Field 409 10.8%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 61.8%
Field 412 38.2%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 78.3%
Field 415 21.7%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 71.8%
Field 418 28.2%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 77.2%
Field 421 22.8%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 74.4%
Field 424 25.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 861,707
Less than high school diploma 32.6%
High school diploma or GED 22.5%
Some college or associate's degree 21.0%
Bachelor's degree 13.7%
Graduate or professional degree 10.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 45.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 13.8%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 21.6%
% change: 1990-2000 125.9%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 175.2%
% change: 1990-2000 157.7%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 410,329
Less than high school diploma 22.8%
High school diploma or GED 21.7%
Some college or associate's degree 25.7%
Bachelor's degree 17.1%
Graduate or professional degree 12.8%
Noncitizens (%) 451,378
Less than high school diploma 41.4%
High school diploma or GED 23.2%
Some college or associate's degree 16.7%
Bachelor's degree 10.6%
Graduate or professional degree 8%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,082,833
Less than high school diploma 8.1%
High school diploma or GED 23.9%
Some college or associate's degree 36.4%
Bachelor's degree 19.9%
Graduate or professional degree 11.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -14.9%
% change: 1990-2000 0.3%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 85.0%
% change: 1990-2000 60.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 476,607
Less than high school diploma 48.4%
High school diploma or GED 18.7%
Some college or associate's degree 17.2%
Bachelor's degree 8.9%
Graduate or professional degree 6.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 9.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,783,320
Less than high school diploma 14.0%
High school diploma or GED 25.3%
Some college or associate's degree 35.7%
Bachelor's degree 16.3%
Graduate or professional degree 8.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 206,614
Less than high school diploma 49.5%
High school diploma or GED 18.4%
Some college or associate's degree 18.1%
Bachelor's degree 7.6%
Graduate or professional degree 6.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 20.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 6.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,089,870
Less than high school diploma 18.6%
High school diploma or GED 27.1%
Some college or associate's degree 33.5%
Bachelor's degree 13.9%
Graduate or professional degree 6.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.