E.g., 06/13/2024
E.g., 06/13/2024
State Language Data - AZ
 

Arizona

Language & Education
2022
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 957,840
Speak only English 17.1%
Speak English "very well" 39.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 43.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2022 15.2%
% change: 1990-2000 172.0%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 476,911
Speak only English 20.5%
Speak English "very well" 46.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33.3%
Noncitizens 480,929
Speak only English 13.8%
Speak English "very well" 32.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53.7%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,007,944
Speak only English 82.9%
Speak English ""very well"" 14.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -14.0%
% change: 1990-2000 26.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 643,640
Speak only English 15.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 28.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 56.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,109,084
Speak only English 83.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 12.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 271,380
Speak only English 20.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 30.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,090,890
Speak only English 84.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 11.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,194,190
Speak only English 887,278
Speak language other than English 306,912
Speak English "very well"
252,649
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
54,263
Speak Spanish 254,582
Speak English "very well"
209,997
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
44,585
Ages 18-64 4,389,640
Speak only English 3,098,030
Speak language other than English 1,291,610
Speak English "very well"
879,577
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
412,033
Speak Spanish 975,885
Speak English "very well"
642,190
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
333,695
65 and Older 1,381,954
Speak only English 1,157,529
Speak language other than English 224,425
Speak English "very well"
120,686
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
103,739
Speak Spanish 149,734
Speak English "very well"
79,618
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
70,116
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 74.3%
Speak language other than English 25.7%
Speak English "very well" 21.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.5%
Speak Spanish 21.3%
Speak English "very well" 17.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.7%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 70.6%
Speak language other than English 29.4%
Speak English "very well" 20.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.4%
Speak Spanish 22.2%
Speak English "very well" 14.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.6%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 83.8%
Speak language other than English 16.2%
Speak English "very well" 8.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.5%
Speak Spanish 10.8%
Speak English "very well" 5.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 6,965,784
Speak only English 5,142,837
Speak language other than English 1,822,947
Spanish 1,380,201
Speak English "very well" 931,805
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 448,396
French (Including Cajun) 18,573
Speak English "very well" 15,475
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,098
Haitian 2,659
Speak English "very well" 1,599
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,060
Italian 5,292
Speak English "very well" 4,538
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 754
Portuguese 6,616
Speak English "very well" 5,676
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 940
German 15,099
Speak English "very well" 13,120
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,979
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 3,234
Speak English "very well" 3,128
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 106
Russian 8,934
Speak English "very well" 6,579
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,355
Polish 5,552
Speak English "very well" 4,189
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,363
Other Slavic Languages 12,106
Speak English "very well" 8,647
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,459
Armenian 1,306
Speak English "very well" 1,056
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 250
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 7,849
Speak English "very well" 5,526
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,323
Gujarati 3,286
Speak English "very well" 2,436
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 850
Hindi 14,549
Speak English "very well" 12,956
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,593
Urdu 3,555
Speak English "very well" 3,205
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 350
Punjabi 1,906
Speak English "very well" 1,793
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 113
Bengali 2,274
Speak English "very well" 1,559
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 715
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 7,383
Speak English "very well" 5,686
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,697
Other Indo-European Languages 11,622
Speak English "very well" 8,468
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,154
Telugu 6,940
Speak English "very well" 5,755
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,185
Tamil 10,665
Speak English "very well" 8,732
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,933
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 3,410
Speak English "very well" 3,087
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 323
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 30,417
Speak English "very well" 17,371
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,046
Japanese 7,626
Speak English "very well" 4,859
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,767
Korean 10,816
Speak English "very well" 5,349
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,467
Hmong 966
Speak English "very well" 966
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 29,413
Speak English "very well" 14,444
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,969
Khmer 2,305
Speak English "very well" 1,186
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,119
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 5,544
Speak English "very well" 3,449
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,095
Other Languages of Asia 6,706
Speak English "very well" 3,881
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,825
Tagalog (including Filipino) 28,522
Speak English "very well" 22,181
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,341
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 7,103
Speak English "very well" 5,075
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,028
Arabic 34,157
Speak English "very well" 23,278
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,879
Hebrew 2,334
Speak English "very well" 1,831
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 503
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 6,962
Speak English "very well" 4,788
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,174
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 6,783
Speak English "very well" 4,038
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,745
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 9,170
Speak English "very well" 5,784
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,386
Native Languages of North America 99,198
Speak English "very well" 77,986
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21,212
Other and Unspecified Languages 1,914
Speak English "very well" 1,431
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 483
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 73.8%
Field 308 26.2%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 67.5%
Field 310 32.5%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 83.3%
Field 315 16.7%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 60.1%
Field 316 39.9%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 85.8%
Field 319 14.2%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 85.8%
Field 322 14.2%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 86.9%
Field 325 13.1%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 96.7%
Field 328 3.3%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 73.6%
Field 331 26.4%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 75.5%
Field 334 24.5%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 71.4%
Field 337 28.6%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 80.9%
Field 340 19.1%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 70.4%
Field 343 29.6%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 74.1%
Field 346 25.9%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 89.1%
Field 349 10.9%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 90.2%
Field 352 9.8%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 94.1%
Field 355 5.9%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 68.6%
Field 358 31.4%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 77.0%
Field 361 23.0%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 72.9%
Field 364 27.1%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 82.9%
Field 367 17.1%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 81.9%
Field 370 18.1%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 90.5%
Field 373 9.5%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 57.1%
Field 376 42.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 63.7%
Field 379 36.3%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 49.5%
Field 382 50.5%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 49.1%
Field 388 50.9%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 51.5%
Field 391 48.5%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 62.2%
Field 394 37.8%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 57.9%
Field 397 42.1%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 77.8%
Field 400 22.2%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 71.4%
Field 403 28.6%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 68.2%
Field 406 31.8%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 78.4%
Field 409 21.6%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 68.8%
Field 412 31.2%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 59.5%
Field 415 40.5%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 63.1%
Field 418 36.9%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 78.6%
Field 421 21.4%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 74.8%
Field 424 25.2%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 851,966
Less than high school diploma 29.4%
High school diploma or GED 23.4%
Some college or associate's degree 20.0%
Bachelor's degree 14.7%
Graduate or professional degree 12.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 45.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 13.9%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2022 8.6%
% change: 1990-2000 125.9%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2022 208.0%
% change: 1990-2000 157.7%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 446,665
Less than high school diploma 20.4%
High school diploma or GED 21.9%
Some college or associate's degree 24.4%
Bachelor's degree 18%
Graduate or professional degree 15.2%
Noncitizens (%) 405,301
Less than high school diploma 39.3%
High school diploma or GED 25.1%
Some college or associate's degree 15.2%
Bachelor's degree 11%
Graduate or professional degree 9.3%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,201,690
Less than high school diploma 7.1%
High school diploma or GED 23.9%
Some college or associate's degree 34.9%
Bachelor's degree 21.6%
Graduate or professional degree 12.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -23.8%
% change: 1990-2000 0.3%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 106.5%
% change: 1990-2000 60.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 476,607
Less than high school diploma 48.4%
High school diploma or GED 18.7%
Some college or associate's degree 17.2%
Bachelor's degree 8.9%
Graduate or professional degree 6.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 9.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,783,320
Less than high school diploma 14.0%
High school diploma or GED 25.3%
Some college or associate's degree 35.7%
Bachelor's degree 16.3%
Graduate or professional degree 8.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 206,614
Less than high school diploma 49.5%
High school diploma or GED 18.4%
Some college or associate's degree 18.1%
Bachelor's degree 7.6%
Graduate or professional degree 6.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 20.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 6.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,089,870
Less than high school diploma 18.6%
High school diploma or GED 27.1%
Some college or associate's degree 33.5%
Bachelor's degree 13.9%
Graduate or professional degree 6.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2022 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, click here. For ACS methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Matthew Sobek, Daniel Backman, Annie Chen, Grace Cooper, Stephanie Richards, Renae Rogers, and Megan Schouweiler. IPUMS USA: Version 14.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2023. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V14.0​.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.