E.g., 11/23/2020
E.g., 11/23/2020

State Language Data - AR

Arkansas

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 143,099
Speak only English 19.0%
Speak English "very well" 29.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51.4%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 87.1%
% change: 1990-2000 421.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 50,149
Speak only English 25.2%
Speak English "very well" 38.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 36.1%
Noncitizens 92,950
Speak only English 15.7%
Speak English "very well" 24.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 59.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,682,634
Speak only English 96.2%
Speak English ""very well"" 3.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.7%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -3.8%
% change: 1990-2000 39.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 72,196
Speak only English 18.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 26.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,420,009
Speak only English 97.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 25,099
Speak only English 38.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 31.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 30.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,154,750
Speak only English 97.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 515,868
Speak only English 467,517
Speak language other than English 48,351
Speak English "very well"
39,971
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
8,380
Speak Spanish 40,195
Speak English "very well"
35,067
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
5,128
Ages 18-64 1,802,189
Speak only English 1,646,987
Speak language other than English 155,202
Speak English "very well"
78,831
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
76,371
Speak Spanish 108,758
Speak English "very well"
51,731
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
57,027
65 and Older 507,676
Speak only English 494,511
Speak language other than English 13,165
Speak English "very well"
6,667
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
6,498
Speak Spanish 5,993
Speak English "very well"
2,087
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
3,906
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 90.6%
Speak language other than English 9.4%
Speak English "very well" 7.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.6%
Speak Spanish 7.8%
Speak English "very well" 6.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.0%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 91.4%
Speak language other than English 8.6%
Speak English "very well" 4.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.2%
Speak Spanish 6.0%
Speak English "very well" 2.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.2%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 97.4%
Speak language other than English 2.6%
Speak English "very well" 1.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.3%
Speak Spanish 1.2%
Speak English "very well" 0.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.8%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 2,825,733
Speak only English 2,609,015
Speak language other than English 216,718
Spanish 154,946
Speak English "very well" 88,885
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 66,061
French (Including Cajun) 4,260
Speak English "very well" 3,322
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 938
Haitian 51
Speak English "very well" 37
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14
Italian 1,070
Speak English "very well" 1,032
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 38
Portuguese 1,079
Speak English "very well" 1,002
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 77
German 3,668
Speak English "very well" 3,186
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 482
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 918
Speak English "very well" 856
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 62
Russian 745
Speak English "very well" 441
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 304
Polish 579
Speak English "very well" 368
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 211
Other Slavic Languages 438
Speak English "very well" 244
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 194
Armenian 154
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 154
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 979
Speak English "very well" 816
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 163
Gujarati 2,336
Speak English "very well" 1,785
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 551
Hindi 397
Speak English "very well" 351
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 46
Urdu 290
Speak English "very well" 225
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 65
Punjabi 38
Speak English "very well" 38
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Bengali 1,204
Speak English "very well" 672
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 532
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 57
Speak English "very well" 57
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Indo-European Languages 1,355
Speak English "very well" 1,005
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 350
Telugu 2,844
Speak English "very well" 1,336
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,508
Tamil 921
Speak English "very well" 587
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 334
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 370
Speak English "very well" 314
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 56
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 3,601
Speak English "very well" 1,481
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,120
Japanese 970
Speak English "very well" 610
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 360
Korean 2,113
Speak English "very well" 613
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,500
Hmong 3,250
Speak English "very well" 2,015
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,235
Vietnamese 6,140
Speak English "very well" 2,374
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,766
Khmer 655
Speak English "very well" 56
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 599
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 6,790
Speak English "very well" 3,973
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,817
Other Languages of Asia 301
Speak English "very well" 124
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 177
Tagalog (including Filipino) 3,395
Speak English "very well" 1,223
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,172
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 6,952
Speak English "very well" 3,407
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,545
Arabic 1,018
Speak English "very well" 872
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 146
Hebrew 69
Speak English "very well" 69
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 261
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 261
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 512
Speak English "very well" 426
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 86
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 252
Speak English "very well" 252
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Native Languages of North America 1,264
Speak English "very well" 993
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 271
Other and Unspecified Languages 476
Speak English "very well" 422
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 92.3%
Field 308 7.7%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 57.4%
Field 310 42.6%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 78.0%
Field 315 22.0%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 72.5%
Field 316 27.5%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 96.4%
Field 319 3.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 92.9%
Field 322 7.1%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 86.9%
Field 325 13.1%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 93.2%
Field 328 6.8%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 59.2%
Field 331 40.8%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 63.6%
Field 334 36.4%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 55.7%
Field 337 44.3%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 N
Field 340 100.0%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 83.4%
Field 343 16.6%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 76.4%
Field 346 23.6%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 88.4%
Field 349 11.6%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 77.6%
Field 352 22.4%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 100.0%
Field 355 N
Field 358 100%
Field 358 55.8%
Field 358 44.2%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 100.0%
Field 361 N
Field 364 100%
Field 364 74.2%
Field 364 25.8%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 47.0%
Field 367 53.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 63.7%
Field 370 36.3%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 84.9%
Field 373 15.1%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 41.1%
Field 376 58.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 62.9%
Field 379 37.1%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 29.0%
Field 382 71.0%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 62.0%
Field 385 38.0%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 38.7%
Field 388 61.3%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 8.5%
Field 391 91.5%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 58.5%
Field 394 41.5%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 41.2%
Field 397 58.8%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 36.0%
Field 400 64.0%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 49.0%
Field 403 51.0%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 85.7%
Field 406 14.3%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 100.0%
Field 409 N
Field 412 100%
Field 412 N
Field 412 100.0%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 83.2%
Field 415 16.8%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 100.0%
Field 418 N
Field 421 100%
Field 421 78.6%
Field 421 21.4%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 88.7%
Field 424 11.3%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 121,048
Less than high school diploma 36.8%
High school diploma or GED 26.7%
Some college or associate's degree 16.2%
Bachelor's degree 10.3%
Graduate or professional degree 10.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 17.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.2%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 88.3%
% change: 1990-2000 287.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 145.1%
% change: 1990-2000 151.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 44,879
Less than high school diploma 25.6%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 22.4%
Bachelor's degree 12.7%
Graduate or professional degree 12.4%
Noncitizens (%) 76,169
Less than high school diploma 43.3%
High school diploma or GED 26.6%
Some college or associate's degree 12.6%
Bachelor's degree 8.9%
Graduate or professional degree 8.5%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,900,891
Less than high school diploma 11.3%
High school diploma or GED 34.4%
Some college or associate's degree 30.8%
Bachelor's degree 14.9%
Graduate or professional degree 8.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -46.6%
% change: 1990-2000 -18.8%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 58.7%
% change: 1990-2000 42.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 51,326
Less than high school diploma 46.0%
High school diploma or GED 18.4%
Some college or associate's degree 16.0%
Bachelor's degree 10.2%
Graduate or professional degree 9.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.6%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,681,371
Less than high school diploma 23.9%
High school diploma or GED 34.5%
Some college or associate's degree 24.9%
Bachelor's degree 11.2%
Graduate or professional degree 5.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 19,725
Less than high school diploma 31.0%
High school diploma or GED 27.9%
Some college or associate's degree 20.9%
Bachelor's degree 9.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 1.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 2.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,471,113
Less than high school diploma 33.6%
High school diploma or GED 32.9%
Some college or associate's degree 20.2%
Bachelor's degree 8.9%
Graduate or professional degree 4.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.