E.g., 06/18/2022
E.g., 06/18/2022
State Language Data - AR
 

Arkansas

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 151,362
Speak only English 20.1%
Speak English "very well" 30.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 91.0%
% change: 1990-2000 421.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 57,535
Speak only English 27.7%
Speak English "very well" 36.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 35.9%
Noncitizens 93,827
Speak only English 15.5%
Speak English "very well" 26.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58.0%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,683,115
Speak only English 96.5%
Speak English ""very well"" 2.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -8.9%
% change: 1990-2000 39.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 72,196
Speak only English 18.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 26.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,420,009
Speak only English 97.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 25,099
Speak only English 38.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 31.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 30.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,154,750
Speak only English 97.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 515,685
Speak only English 465,800
Speak language other than English 49,885
Speak English "very well"
38,281
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
11,604
Speak Spanish 39,396
Speak English "very well"
31,737
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
7,659
Ages 18-64 1,794,555
Speak only English 1,643,685
Speak language other than English 150,870
Speak English "very well"
79,416
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
71,454
Speak Spanish 110,495
Speak English "very well"
54,267
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
56,228
65 and Older 524,237
Speak only English 509,068
Speak language other than English 15,169
Speak English "very well"
6,400
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
8,769
Speak Spanish 7,913
Speak English "very well"
2,835
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
5,078
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 90.3%
Speak language other than English 9.7%
Speak English "very well" 7.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.3%
Speak Spanish 7.6%
Speak English "very well" 6.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.5%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 91.6%
Speak language other than English 8.4%
Speak English "very well" 4.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.0%
Speak Spanish 6.2%
Speak English "very well" 3.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.1%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 97.1%
Speak language other than English 2.9%
Speak English "very well" 1.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.7%
Speak Spanish 1.5%
Speak English "very well" 0.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 2,809,734
Speak only English 2,598,218
Speak language other than English 211,516
Spanish 152,982
Speak English "very well" 85,157
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 67,825
French (Including Cajun) 3,438
Speak English "very well" 2,720
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 718
Haitian 192
Speak English "very well" 191
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1
Italian 739
Speak English "very well" 558
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 181
Portuguese 831
Speak English "very well" 631
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 200
German 4,286
Speak English "very well" 3,512
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 774
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 856
Speak English "very well" 720
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 136
Russian 780
Speak English "very well" 671
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 109
Polish 752
Speak English "very well" 578
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 174
Other Slavic Languages 1,006
Speak English "very well" 506
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 500
Armenian 59
Speak English "very well" 18
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 429
Speak English "very well" 310
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 119
Gujarati 1,234
Speak English "very well" 914
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 320
Hindi 1,809
Speak English "very well" 1,366
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 443
Urdu 917
Speak English "very well" 781
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 136
Punjabi 327
Speak English "very well" 236
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 91
Bengali 883
Speak English "very well" 544
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 339
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 815
Speak English "very well" 463
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 352
Other Indo-European Languages 1,465
Speak English "very well" 929
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 536
Telugu 1,659
Speak English "very well" 1,228
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 431
Tamil 946
Speak English "very well" 722
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 224
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 634
Speak English "very well" 490
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 144
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 5,483
Speak English "very well" 3,058
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,425
Japanese 1,049
Speak English "very well" 540
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 509
Korean 1,687
Speak English "very well" 815
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 872
Hmong 1,539
Speak English "very well" 878
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 661
Vietnamese 5,184
Speak English "very well" 2,039
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,145
Khmer 367
Speak English "very well" 63
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 304
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 4,319
Speak English "very well" 2,041
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,278
Other Languages of Asia 392
Speak English "very well" 126
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 266
Tagalog (including Filipino) 2,766
Speak English "very well" 1,434
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,332
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 6,692
Speak English "very well" 2,726
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,966
Arabic 2,345
Speak English "very well" 1,532
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 813
Hebrew 108
Speak English "very well" 93
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 72
Speak English "very well" 17
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 55
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 692
Speak English "very well" 568
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 124
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 648
Speak English "very well" 630
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 18
Native Languages of North America 608
Speak English "very well" 519
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 89
Other and Unspecified Languages 526
Speak English "very well" 424
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 102
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 92.5%
Field 308 7.5%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 55.7%
Field 310 44.3%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 79.1%
Field 315 20.9%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 99.5%
Field 316 0.5%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 75.5%
Field 319 24.5%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 75.9%
Field 322 24.1%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 81.9%
Field 325 18.1%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 84.1%
Field 328 15.9%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 86.0%
Field 331 14.0%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 76.9%
Field 334 23.1%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 50.3%
Field 337 49.7%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 30.5%
Field 340 69.5%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 72.3%
Field 343 27.7%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 74.1%
Field 346 25.9%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 75.5%
Field 349 24.5%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 85.2%
Field 352 14.8%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 72.2%
Field 355 27.8%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 61.6%
Field 358 38.4%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 56.8%
Field 361 43.2%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 63.4%
Field 364 36.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 74.0%
Field 367 26.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 76.3%
Field 370 23.7%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 77.3%
Field 373 22.7%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 55.8%
Field 376 44.2%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 51.5%
Field 379 48.5%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 48.3%
Field 382 51.7%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 57.1%
Field 385 42.9%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 39.3%
Field 388 60.7%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 17.2%
Field 391 82.8%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 47.3%
Field 394 52.7%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 32.1%
Field 397 67.9%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 51.8%
Field 400 48.2%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 40.7%
Field 403 59.3%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 65.3%
Field 406 34.7%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 86.1%
Field 409 13.9%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 23.6%
Field 412 76.4%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 82.1%
Field 415 17.9%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 97.2%
Field 418 2.8%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 85.4%
Field 421 14.6%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 80.6%
Field 424 19.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 125,703
Less than high school diploma 39.1%
High school diploma or GED 26.6%
Some college or associate's degree 12.7%
Bachelor's degree 11.2%
Graduate or professional degree 10.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 19.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.7%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 107.7%
% change: 1990-2000 287.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 171.2%
% change: 1990-2000 151.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 51,196
Less than high school diploma 26.6%
High school diploma or GED 27.3%
Some college or associate's degree 18%
Bachelor's degree 15.9%
Graduate or professional degree 12.2%
Noncitizens (%) 74,507
Less than high school diploma 47.6%
High school diploma or GED 26.1%
Some college or associate's degree 9.1%
Bachelor's degree 7.9%
Graduate or professional degree 9.3%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,910,753
Less than high school diploma 10.8%
High school diploma or GED 35.4%
Some college or associate's degree 30.3%
Bachelor's degree 15.3%
Graduate or professional degree 8.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -48.7%
% change: 1990-2000 -18.8%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 59.2%
% change: 1990-2000 42.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 51,326
Less than high school diploma 46.0%
High school diploma or GED 18.4%
Some college or associate's degree 16.0%
Bachelor's degree 10.2%
Graduate or professional degree 9.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.6%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,681,371
Less than high school diploma 23.9%
High school diploma or GED 34.5%
Some college or associate's degree 24.9%
Bachelor's degree 11.2%
Graduate or professional degree 5.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 19,725
Less than high school diploma 31.0%
High school diploma or GED 27.9%
Some college or associate's degree 20.9%
Bachelor's degree 9.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 1.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 2.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,471,113
Less than high school diploma 33.6%
High school diploma or GED 32.9%
Some college or associate's degree 20.2%
Bachelor's degree 8.9%
Graduate or professional degree 4.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.