E.g., 03/04/2024
E.g., 03/04/2024
State Language Data - AL
 

Alabama

Language & Education
2022
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 189,324
Speak only English 20.3%
Speak English "very well" 35.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 44.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2022 133.2%
% change: 1990-2000 231.4%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 79,003
Speak only English 32%
Speak English "very well" 38.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29.5%
Noncitizens 110,321
Speak only English 11.9%
Speak English "very well" 33.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54.8%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,600,908
Speak only English 97.3%
Speak English ""very well"" 2.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -17.7%
% change: 1990-2000 18.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 85,973
Speak only English 25.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 33.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,066,305
Speak only English 97.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 41,529
Speak only English 35.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 38.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,712,781
Speak only English 97.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 826,964
Speak only English 769,925
Speak language other than English 57,039
Speak English "very well"
42,837
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
14,202
Speak Spanish 45,330
Speak English "very well"
34,316
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
11,014
Ages 18-64 3,050,255
Speak only English 2,853,807
Speak language other than English 196,448
Speak English "very well"
114,394
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
82,054
Speak Spanish 114,725
Speak English "very well"
61,985
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
52,740
65 and Older 913,013
Speak only English 890,276
Speak language other than English 22,737
Speak English "very well"
12,187
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
10,550
Speak Spanish 9,224
Speak English "very well"
5,196
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
4,028
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 93.1%
Speak language other than English 6.9%
Speak English "very well" 5.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.7%
Speak Spanish 5.5%
Speak English "very well" 4.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.3%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 93.6%
Speak language other than English 6.4%
Speak English "very well" 3.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.7%
Speak Spanish 3.8%
Speak English "very well" 2.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.7%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 97.5%
Speak language other than English 2.5%
Speak English "very well" 1.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.2%
Speak Spanish 1.0%
Speak English "very well" 0.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 4,790,232
Speak only English 4,514,008
Speak language other than English 276,224
Spanish 169,279
Speak English "very well" 101,497
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 67,782
French (Including Cajun) 5,203
Speak English "very well" 4,050
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,153
Haitian 634
Speak English "very well" 482
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 152
Italian 1,653
Speak English "very well" 1,402
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 251
Portuguese 2,133
Speak English "very well" 1,377
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 756
German 10,306
Speak English "very well" 8,184
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,122
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 1,721
Speak English "very well" 1,721
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Russian 1,643
Speak English "very well" 1,404
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 239
Polish 275
Speak English "very well" 198
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 77
Other Slavic Languages 2,314
Speak English "very well" 2,036
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 278
Armenian N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 1,016
Speak English "very well" 741
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 275
Gujarati 2,570
Speak English "very well" 903
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,667
Hindi 1,546
Speak English "very well" 1,048
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 498
Urdu 2,055
Speak English "very well" 1,693
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 362
Punjabi 666
Speak English "very well" 589
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 77
Bengali 2,487
Speak English "very well" 983
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,504
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 3,159
Speak English "very well" 2,172
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 987
Other Indo-European Languages 2,581
Speak English "very well" 1,925
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 656
Telugu 1,929
Speak English "very well" 1,482
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 447
Tamil 115
Speak English "very well" 115
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 379
Speak English "very well" 379
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 10,328
Speak English "very well" 5,235
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,093
Japanese 3,018
Speak English "very well" 1,290
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,728
Korean 10,737
Speak English "very well" 5,313
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,424
Hmong 537
Speak English "very well" 537
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 6,688
Speak English "very well" 2,578
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,110
Khmer 290
Speak English "very well" 143
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 147
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 2,549
Speak English "very well" 1,462
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,087
Other Languages of Asia 1,331
Speak English "very well" 990
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 341
Tagalog (including Filipino) 5,222
Speak English "very well" 3,170
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,052
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 1,248
Speak English "very well" 829
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 419
Arabic 9,038
Speak English "very well" 4,973
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,065
Hebrew 344
Speak English "very well" 344
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 696
Speak English "very well" 256
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 440
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 4,878
Speak English "very well" 3,738
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,140
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 2,722
Speak English "very well" 1,729
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 993
Native Languages of North America 561
Speak English "very well" 561
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other and Unspecified Languages 2,373
Speak English "very well" 1,889
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 484
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 94.2%
Field 308 5.8%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 60.0%
Field 310 40.0%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 77.8%
Field 315 22.2%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 76.0%
Field 316 24.0%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 84.8%
Field 319 15.2%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 64.6%
Field 322 35.4%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 79.4%
Field 325 20.6%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 100.0%
Field 328 N
Field 331 100%
Field 331 85.5%
Field 331 14.5%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 72.0%
Field 334 28.0%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 88.0%
Field 337 12.0%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 N
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 72.9%
Field 343 27.1%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 35.1%
Field 346 64.9%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 67.8%
Field 349 32.2%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 82.4%
Field 352 17.6%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 88.4%
Field 355 11.6%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 39.5%
Field 358 60.5%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 68.8%
Field 361 31.2%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 74.6%
Field 364 25.4%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 76.8%
Field 367 23.2%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 100.0%
Field 370 N
Field 373 100%
Field 373 100.0%
Field 373 N
Field 376 100%
Field 376 50.7%
Field 376 49.3%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 42.7%
Field 379 57.3%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 49.5%
Field 382 50.5%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 38.5%
Field 388 61.5%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 49.3%
Field 391 50.7%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 57.4%
Field 394 42.6%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 74.4%
Field 397 25.6%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 60.7%
Field 400 39.3%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 66.4%
Field 403 33.6%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 55.0%
Field 406 45.0%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 100.0%
Field 409 N
Field 412 100%
Field 412 36.8%
Field 412 63.2%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 76.6%
Field 415 23.4%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 63.5%
Field 418 36.5%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 100.0%
Field 421 N
Field 424 100%
Field 424 79.6%
Field 424 20.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 159,462
Less than high school diploma 25.1%
High school diploma or GED 26.1%
Some college or associate's degree 14.6%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 17.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 10.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.4%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2022 116.1%
% change: 1990-2000 188.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2022 165.2%
% change: 1990-2000 73.1%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 70,272
Less than high school diploma 18.4%
High school diploma or GED 21.6%
Some college or associate's degree 20.3%
Bachelor's degree 19.5%
Graduate or professional degree 20.1%
Noncitizens (%) 89,190
Less than high school diploma 30.4%
High school diploma or GED 29.7%
Some college or associate's degree 10.1%
Bachelor's degree 14.6%
Graduate or professional degree 15.2%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,315,462
Less than high school diploma 10.5%
High school diploma or GED 30.6%
Some college or associate's degree 30.3%
Bachelor's degree 17.6%
Graduate or professional degree 11.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -49.6%
% change: 1990-2000 -16.8%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 79.5%
% change: 1990-2000 37.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 65,862
Less than high school diploma 28.2%
High school diploma or GED 19.7%
Some college or associate's degree 21.0%
Bachelor's degree 14.7%
Graduate or professional degree 16.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 2.6%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,820,231
Less than high school diploma 24.6%
High school diploma or GED 30.8%
Some college or associate's degree 25.9%
Bachelor's degree 12.1%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 33,371
Less than high school diploma 19.3%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 23.1%
Bachelor's degree 16.2%
Graduate or professional degree 19.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 0.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,505,627
Less than high school diploma 33.2%
High school diploma or GED 29.6%
Some college or associate's degree 21.9%
Bachelor's degree 9.9%
Graduate or professional degree 5.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2022 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, click here. For ACS methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Matthew Sobek, Daniel Backman, Annie Chen, Grace Cooper, Stephanie Richards, Renae Rogers, and Megan Schouweiler. IPUMS USA: Version 14.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2023. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V14.0​.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.