E.g., 09/18/2021
E.g., 09/18/2021
State Language Data - AL
 

Alabama

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 173,021
Speak only English 20.9%
Speak English "very well" 34.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 116.7%
% change: 1990-2000 231.4%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 76,680
Speak only English 32.8%
Speak English "very well" 39.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27.5%
Noncitizens 96,341
Speak only English 11.5%
Speak English "very well" 29.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58.9%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,443,567
Speak only English 97.3%
Speak English ""very well"" 2.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -15.0%
% change: 1990-2000 18.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 85,973
Speak only English 25.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 33.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,066,305
Speak only English 97.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 41,529
Speak only English 35.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 38.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,712,781
Speak only English 97.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 799,000
Speak only English 738,506
Speak language other than English 60,494
Speak English "very well"
47,562
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
12,932
Speak Spanish 49,008
Speak English "very well"
38,500
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
10,508
Ages 18-64 2,963,276
Speak only English 2,790,645
Speak language other than English 172,631
Speak English "very well"
93,614
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
79,017
Speak Spanish 108,862
Speak English "very well"
51,242
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
57,620
65 and Older 854,312
Speak only English 832,052
Speak language other than English 22,260
Speak English "very well"
12,585
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
9,675
Speak Spanish 8,063
Speak English "very well"
4,681
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
3,382
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 92.4%
Speak language other than English 7.6%
Speak English "very well" 6.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.6%
Speak Spanish 6.1%
Speak English "very well" 4.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.3%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 94.2%
Speak language other than English 5.8%
Speak English "very well" 3.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.7%
Speak Spanish 3.7%
Speak English "very well" 1.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.9%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 97.4%
Speak language other than English 2.6%
Speak English "very well" 1.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.1%
Speak Spanish 0.9%
Speak English "very well" 0.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 4,616,588
Speak only English 4,361,203
Speak language other than English 255,385
Spanish 165,933
Speak English "very well" 94,423
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 71,510
French (Including Cajun) 5,805
Speak English "very well" 4,678
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,127
Haitian 1,516
Speak English "very well" 803
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 713
Italian 1,568
Speak English "very well" 1,514
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54
Portuguese 1,890
Speak English "very well" 875
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,015
German 7,856
Speak English "very well" 7,113
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 743
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 664
Speak English "very well" 549
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 115
Russian 2,617
Speak English "very well" 1,384
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,233
Polish 266
Speak English "very well" 266
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Slavic Languages 899
Speak English "very well" 784
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 115
Armenian N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 1,506
Speak English "very well" 1,165
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 341
Gujarati 3,623
Speak English "very well" 2,965
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 658
Hindi 2,170
Speak English "very well" 1,776
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 394
Urdu 1,911
Speak English "very well" 1,110
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 801
Punjabi 1,360
Speak English "very well" 1,360
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Bengali 465
Speak English "very well" 368
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 97
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 1,510
Speak English "very well" 1,119
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 391
Other Indo-European Languages 2,247
Speak English "very well" 1,791
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 456
Telugu 2,641
Speak English "very well" 2,357
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 284
Tamil 105
Speak English "very well" 96
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 552
Speak English "very well" 552
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 10,767
Speak English "very well" 5,289
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,478
Japanese 2,654
Speak English "very well" 1,778
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 876
Korean 10,241
Speak English "very well" 4,647
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,594
Hmong 239
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 239
Vietnamese 6,072
Speak English "very well" 3,149
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,923
Khmer 681
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 681
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 1,516
Speak English "very well" 793
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 723
Other Languages of Asia 720
Speak English "very well" 393
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 327
Tagalog (including Filipino) 5,483
Speak English "very well" 4,072
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,411
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 1,033
Speak English "very well" 760
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 273
Arabic 2,906
Speak English "very well" 1,361
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,545
Hebrew 393
Speak English "very well" 226
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 167
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 768
Speak English "very well" 46
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 722
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 2,035
Speak English "very well" 1,998
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 1,678
Speak English "very well" 1,218
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 460
Native Languages of North America 421
Speak English "very well" 421
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other and Unspecified Languages 674
Speak English "very well" 562
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 112
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 94.5%
Field 308 5.5%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 56.9%
Field 310 43.1%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 80.6%
Field 315 19.4%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 53.0%
Field 316 47.0%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 96.6%
Field 319 3.4%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 46.3%
Field 322 53.7%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 90.5%
Field 325 9.5%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 82.7%
Field 328 17.3%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 52.9%
Field 331 47.1%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 100.0%
Field 334 N
Field 337 100%
Field 337 87.2%
Field 337 12.8%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 N
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 77.4%
Field 343 22.6%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 81.8%
Field 346 18.2%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 81.8%
Field 349 18.2%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 58.1%
Field 352 41.9%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 100.0%
Field 355 N
Field 358 100%
Field 358 79.1%
Field 358 20.9%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 74.1%
Field 361 25.9%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 79.7%
Field 364 20.3%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 89.2%
Field 367 10.8%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 91.4%
Field 370 8.6%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 100.0%
Field 373 N
Field 376 100%
Field 376 49.1%
Field 376 50.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 67.0%
Field 379 33.0%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 45.4%
Field 382 54.6%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 100.0%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 51.9%
Field 388 48.1%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 N
Field 391 100.0%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 52.3%
Field 394 47.7%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 54.6%
Field 397 45.4%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 74.3%
Field 400 25.7%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 73.6%
Field 403 26.4%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 46.8%
Field 406 53.2%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 57.5%
Field 409 42.5%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 6.0%
Field 412 94.0%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 98.2%
Field 415 1.8%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 72.6%
Field 418 27.4%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 100.0%
Field 421 N
Field 424 100%
Field 424 83.4%
Field 424 16.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 145,046
Less than high school diploma 29.1%
High school diploma or GED 18.6%
Some college or associate's degree 18.0%
Bachelor's degree 18.5%
Graduate or professional degree 15.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 9.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.6%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 127.2%
% change: 1990-2000 188.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 142.6%
% change: 1990-2000 73.1%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 67,841
Less than high school diploma 18.2%
High school diploma or GED 18%
Some college or associate's degree 21.2%
Bachelor's degree 22.5%
Graduate or professional degree 20.1%
Noncitizens (%) 77,205
Less than high school diploma 38.6%
High school diploma or GED 19.1%
Some college or associate's degree 15.2%
Bachelor's degree 15%
Graduate or professional degree 12%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,215,012
Less than high school diploma 12.2%
High school diploma or GED 31.5%
Some college or associate's degree 30.4%
Bachelor's degree 16.2%
Graduate or professional degree 9.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -43.6%
% change: 1990-2000 -16.8%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 58.4%
% change: 1990-2000 37.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 65,862
Less than high school diploma 28.2%
High school diploma or GED 19.7%
Some college or associate's degree 21.0%
Bachelor's degree 14.7%
Graduate or professional degree 16.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 2.6%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,820,231
Less than high school diploma 24.6%
High school diploma or GED 30.8%
Some college or associate's degree 25.9%
Bachelor's degree 12.1%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 33,371
Less than high school diploma 19.3%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 23.1%
Bachelor's degree 16.2%
Graduate or professional degree 19.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 0.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,505,627
Less than high school diploma 33.2%
High school diploma or GED 29.6%
Some college or associate's degree 21.9%
Bachelor's degree 9.9%
Graduate or professional degree 5.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.