E.g., 12/05/2020
E.g., 12/05/2020

State Language Data - AL

Alabama

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 161,699
Speak only English 21.7%
Speak English "very well" 33.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 102.4%
% change: 1990-2000 231.4%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 67,097
Speak only English 34%
Speak English "very well" 38.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27.4%
Noncitizens 94,602
Speak only English 13.1%
Speak English "very well" 29.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.4%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,437,583
Speak only English 97.4%
Speak English ""very well"" 2.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -20.4%
% change: 1990-2000 18.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 85,973
Speak only English 25.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 33.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,066,305
Speak only English 97.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 41,529
Speak only English 35.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 38.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,712,781
Speak only English 97.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 800,516
Speak only English 747,771
Speak language other than English 52,745
Speak English "very well"
41,979
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
10,766
Speak Spanish 40,760
Speak English "very well"
32,077
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
8,683
Ages 18-64 2,969,103
Speak only English 2,802,685
Speak language other than English 166,418
Speak English "very well"
91,789
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
74,629
Speak Spanish 100,312
Speak English "very well"
51,179
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
49,133
65 and Older 829,663
Speak only English 804,969
Speak language other than English 24,694
Speak English "very well"
15,103
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
9,591
Speak Spanish 9,860
Speak English "very well"
5,483
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
4,377
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 93.4%
Speak language other than English 6.6%
Speak English "very well" 5.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.3%
Speak Spanish 5.1%
Speak English "very well" 4.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.1%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 94.4%
Speak language other than English 5.6%
Speak English "very well" 3.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.5%
Speak Spanish 3.4%
Speak English "very well" 1.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.7%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 97.0%
Speak language other than English 3.0%
Speak English "very well" 1.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.2%
Speak Spanish 1.2%
Speak English "very well" 0.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 4,599,282
Speak only English 4,355,425
Speak language other than English 243,857
Spanish 150,932
Speak English "very well" 88,739
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 62,193
French (Including Cajun) 8,255
Speak English "very well" 6,206
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,049
Haitian 1,765
Speak English "very well" 1,412
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 353
Italian 1,091
Speak English "very well" 1,044
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 47
Portuguese 2,061
Speak English "very well" 1,776
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 285
German 8,584
Speak English "very well" 7,294
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,290
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 705
Speak English "very well" 619
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 86
Russian 1,520
Speak English "very well" 1,462
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58
Polish 1,069
Speak English "very well" 826
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 243
Other Slavic Languages 1,702
Speak English "very well" 1,551
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 151
Armenian 98
Speak English "very well" 98
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 1,072
Speak English "very well" 427
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 645
Gujarati 2,814
Speak English "very well" 1,971
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 843
Hindi 3,905
Speak English "very well" 3,292
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 613
Urdu 3,515
Speak English "very well" 2,417
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,098
Punjabi N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Bengali 1,446
Speak English "very well" 602
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 844
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 2,860
Speak English "very well" 1,764
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,096
Other Indo-European Languages 1,911
Speak English "very well" 1,634
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 277
Telugu 2,437
Speak English "very well" 1,943
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 494
Tamil 269
Speak English "very well" 142
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 127
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 905
Speak English "very well" 599
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 306
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 8,745
Speak English "very well" 3,455
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,290
Japanese 1,716
Speak English "very well" 825
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 891
Korean 8,672
Speak English "very well" 3,863
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,809
Hmong 69
Speak English "very well" 69
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 8,479
Speak English "very well" 2,842
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,637
Khmer 1,039
Speak English "very well" 198
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 841
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 1,126
Speak English "very well" 792
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 334
Other Languages of Asia 340
Speak English "very well" 112
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 228
Tagalog (including Filipino) 2,932
Speak English "very well" 2,229
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 703
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 933
Speak English "very well" 600
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 333
Arabic 5,792
Speak English "very well" 4,399
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,393
Hebrew 94
Speak English "very well" 46
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 48
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 506
Speak English "very well" 439
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 67
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 1,148
Speak English "very well" 1,020
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 128
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 946
Speak English "very well" 438
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 508
Native Languages of North America 1,044
Speak English "very well" 954
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 90
Other and Unspecified Languages 1,360
Speak English "very well" 772
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 588
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 94.7%
Field 308 5.3%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.8%
Field 310 41.2%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 75.2%
Field 315 24.8%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 80.0%
Field 316 20.0%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 95.7%
Field 319 4.3%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 86.2%
Field 322 13.8%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 85.0%
Field 325 15.0%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 87.8%
Field 328 12.2%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 96.2%
Field 331 3.8%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 77.3%
Field 334 22.7%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 91.1%
Field 337 8.9%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 100.0%
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 39.8%
Field 343 60.2%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 70.0%
Field 346 30.0%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 84.3%
Field 349 15.7%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 68.8%
Field 352 31.2%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 N
Field 355 N
Field 358 100%
Field 358 41.6%
Field 358 58.4%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 61.7%
Field 361 38.3%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 85.5%
Field 364 14.5%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 79.7%
Field 367 20.3%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 52.8%
Field 370 47.2%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 66.2%
Field 373 33.8%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 39.5%
Field 376 60.5%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 48.1%
Field 379 51.9%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 44.5%
Field 382 55.5%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 33.5%
Field 388 66.5%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 19.1%
Field 391 80.9%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 70.3%
Field 394 29.7%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 32.9%
Field 397 67.1%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 76.0%
Field 400 24.0%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 64.3%
Field 403 35.7%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 75.9%
Field 406 24.1%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 48.9%
Field 409 51.1%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 86.8%
Field 412 13.2%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 88.9%
Field 415 11.1%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 46.3%
Field 418 53.7%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 91.4%
Field 421 8.6%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 56.8%
Field 424 43.2%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 134,812
Less than high school diploma 26.8%
High school diploma or GED 21.6%
Some college or associate's degree 18.1%
Bachelor's degree 17.1%
Graduate or professional degree 16.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 8.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.3%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 94.8%
% change: 1990-2000 188.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 119.5%
% change: 1990-2000 73.1%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 60,131
Less than high school diploma 15.3%
High school diploma or GED 20.9%
Some college or associate's degree 22.1%
Bachelor's degree 20.9%
Graduate or professional degree 20.8%
Noncitizens (%) 74,681
Less than high school diploma 36.1%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 14.9%
Bachelor's degree 14%
Graduate or professional degree 12.8%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,202,652
Less than high school diploma 12.9%
High school diploma or GED 31.2%
Some college or associate's degree 30.8%
Bachelor's degree 16.0%
Graduate or professional degree 9.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -40.5%
% change: 1990-2000 -16.8%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 53.0%
% change: 1990-2000 37.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 65,862
Less than high school diploma 28.2%
High school diploma or GED 19.7%
Some college or associate's degree 21.0%
Bachelor's degree 14.7%
Graduate or professional degree 16.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 2.6%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,820,231
Less than high school diploma 24.6%
High school diploma or GED 30.8%
Some college or associate's degree 25.9%
Bachelor's degree 12.1%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 33,371
Less than high school diploma 19.3%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 23.1%
Bachelor's degree 16.2%
Graduate or professional degree 19.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 0.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,505,627
Less than high school diploma 33.2%
High school diploma or GED 29.6%
Some college or associate's degree 21.9%
Bachelor's degree 9.9%
Graduate or professional degree 5.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.