E.g., 01/21/2020
E.g., 01/21/2020

State Language Data - AL

Alabama

Language & Education
2017
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 167,305
Speak only English 23.0%
Speak English "very well" 35.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.4%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2017 92.9%
% change: 1990-2000 231.4%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 66,837
Speak only English 35.5%
Speak English "very well" 44.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19.9%
Noncitizens 100,468
Speak only English 14.8%
Speak English "very well" 29.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 55.8%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,418,545
Speak only English 97.6%
Speak English ""very well"" 2.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.4%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -35.5%
% change: 1990-2000 18.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 85,973
Speak only English 25.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 33.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,066,305
Speak only English 97.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 41,529
Speak only English 35.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 38.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,712,781
Speak only English 97.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 805,164
Speak only English 749,304
Speak language other than English 55,860
Speak English "very well"
43,803
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
12,057
Speak Spanish 42,032
Speak English "very well"
32,196
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
9,836
Ages 18-64 2,977,470
Speak only English 2,816,484
Speak language other than English 160,986
Speak English "very well"
93,213
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
67,773
Speak Spanish 92,947
Speak English "very well"
46,061
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
46,886
65 and Older 803,216
Speak only English 785,663
Speak language other than English 17,553
Speak English "very well"
10,015
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
7,538
Speak Spanish 6,637
Speak English "very well"
4,427
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,210
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 93.1%
Speak language other than English 6.9%
Speak English "very well" 5.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.5%
Speak Spanish 5.2%
Speak English "very well" 4.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.2%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 94.6%
Speak language other than English 5.4%
Speak English "very well" 3.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.3%
Speak Spanish 3.1%
Speak English "very well" 1.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.6%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 97.8%
Speak language other than English 2.2%
Speak English "very well" 1.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.9%
Speak Spanish 0.8%
Speak English "very well" 0.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.3%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 4,585,850
Speak only English 4,351,451
Speak language other than English 234,399
Spanish 141,616
Speak English "very well" 82,684
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58,932
French (Including Cajun) 7,873
Speak English "very well" 6,326
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,547
Haitian 1,219
Speak English "very well" 1,070
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 149
Italian 1,131
Speak English "very well" 1,058
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 73
Portuguese 1,811
Speak English "very well" 1,455
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 356
German 9,082
Speak English "very well" 7,772
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,310
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 1,354
Speak English "very well" 1,071
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 283
Russian 1,367
Speak English "very well" 1,049
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 318
Polish 437
Speak English "very well" 437
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Slavic Languages 918
Speak English "very well" 734
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 184
Armenian N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 834
Speak English "very well" 722
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 112
Gujarati 3,387
Speak English "very well" 2,334
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,053
Hindi 3,570
Speak English "very well" 2,445
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,125
Urdu 338
Speak English "very well" 85
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 253
Punjabi 369
Speak English "very well" 203
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 166
Bengali 721
Speak English "very well" 599
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 122
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 1,724
Speak English "very well" 668
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,056
Other Indo-European Languages 2,147
Speak English "very well" 1,875
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 272
Telugu 2,083
Speak English "very well" 1,998
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 85
Tamil 954
Speak English "very well" 954
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 96
Speak English "very well" 96
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 9,725
Speak English "very well" 5,274
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,451
Japanese 3,127
Speak English "very well" 1,493
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,634
Korean 9,013
Speak English "very well" 3,990
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,023
Hmong N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 8,159
Speak English "very well" 3,715
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,444
Khmer 707
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 707
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 3,093
Speak English "very well" 1,860
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,233
Other Languages of Asia 1,899
Speak English "very well" 1,724
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 175
Tagalog (including Filipino) 2,308
Speak English "very well" 1,878
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 430
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 976
Speak English "very well" 972
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4
Arabic 6,249
Speak English "very well" 4,986
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,263
Hebrew 157
Speak English "very well" 157
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 336
Speak English "very well" 229
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 107
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 1,646
Speak English "very well" 1,589
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 2,428
Speak English "very well" 2,192
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 236
Native Languages of North America 641
Speak English "very well" 641
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other and Unspecified Languages 904
Speak English "very well" 696
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 208
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 94.9%
Field 308 5.1%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.4%
Field 310 41.6%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 80.4%
Field 315 19.6%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 87.8%
Field 316 12.2%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 93.5%
Field 319 6.5%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 80.3%
Field 322 19.7%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 85.6%
Field 325 14.4%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 79.1%
Field 328 20.9%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 76.7%
Field 331 23.3%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 100.0%
Field 334 N
Field 337 100%
Field 337 80.0%
Field 337 20.0%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 N
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 86.6%
Field 343 13.4%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 68.9%
Field 346 31.1%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 68.5%
Field 349 31.5%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 25.1%
Field 352 74.9%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 55.0%
Field 355 45.0%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 83.1%
Field 358 16.9%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 38.7%
Field 361 61.3%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 87.3%
Field 364 12.7%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 95.9%
Field 367 4.1%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 100.0%
Field 370 N
Field 373 100%
Field 373 100.0%
Field 373 N
Field 376 100%
Field 376 54.2%
Field 376 45.8%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 47.7%
Field 379 52.3%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 44.3%
Field 382 55.7%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 45.5%
Field 388 54.5%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 N
Field 391 100.0%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 60.1%
Field 394 39.9%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 90.8%
Field 397 9.2%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 81.4%
Field 400 18.6%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 99.6%
Field 403 0.4%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 79.8%
Field 406 20.2%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 100.0%
Field 409 N
Field 412 100%
Field 412 68.2%
Field 412 31.8%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 96.5%
Field 415 3.5%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 90.3%
Field 418 9.7%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 100.0%
Field 421 N
Field 424 100%
Field 424 77.0%
Field 424 23.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 135,630
Less than high school diploma 27.9%
High school diploma or GED 24.0%
Some college or associate's degree 16.9%
Bachelor's degree 16.1%
Graduate or professional degree 15.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 8.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.0%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2017 104.0%
% change: 1990-2000 188.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2017 106.0%
% change: 1990-2000 73.1%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 55,469
Less than high school diploma 14.6%
High school diploma or GED 21.1%
Some college or associate's degree 21.4%
Bachelor's degree 22.6%
Graduate or professional degree 20.2%
Noncitizens (%) 80,161
Less than high school diploma 37.1%
High school diploma or GED 26.1%
Some college or associate's degree 13.7%
Bachelor's degree 11.6%
Graduate or professional degree 11.6%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,173,977
Less than high school diploma 12.9%
High school diploma or GED 31.4%
Some college or associate's degree 30.4%
Bachelor's degree 15.9%
Graduate or professional degree 9.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -41.0%
% change: 1990-2000 -16.8%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 52.2%
% change: 1990-2000 37.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 65,862
Less than high school diploma 28.2%
High school diploma or GED 19.7%
Some college or associate's degree 21.0%
Bachelor's degree 14.7%
Graduate or professional degree 16.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 2.6%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,820,231
Less than high school diploma 24.6%
High school diploma or GED 30.8%
Some college or associate's degree 25.9%
Bachelor's degree 12.1%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 33,371
Less than high school diploma 19.3%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 23.1%
Bachelor's degree 16.2%
Graduate or professional degree 19.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 0.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,505,627
Less than high school diploma 33.2%
High school diploma or GED 29.6%
Some college or associate's degree 21.9%
Bachelor's degree 9.9%
Graduate or professional degree 5.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2017 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.