E.g., 03/02/2024
E.g., 03/02/2024
State Demographics Data - AL
 

Alabama

Demographics & Social
2022
2000
1990
Demographics

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
Number 191,234
% Foreign Born 3.8%
Population Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2022 117.9%
% change: 1990-2000 101.6%
Race (%)  
One race 85.2%
White
25.4%
Black or African American
8.1%
American Indian and Alaska Native
2.5%
Asian
27.7%
Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander
0.7%
Other race
20.8%
Two or more races 14.8%
Latino Origin (of any race)  
Number 82,079
% Latino 42.9%
Age Groups (%)  
Under 5 1.0%
5-17 7.0%
18-64 81.7%
65 and older 10.2%
Median Age

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau’s pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 2) The letter N indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

40.7
Gender (% female) 50.3%
Marital Status (15 and older) (%)  
Never married 22.9%
Married 66.2%
Separated, divorced, or widowed 10.8%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
Number 4,883,062
% Foreign Born  
Population Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 12.0%
% change: 1990-2000 9.1%
Race (%)  
One race 95.3%
White 66.6%
Black or African American 26.3%
American Indian and Alaska Native 0.4%
Asian 0.5%
Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander 0.1%
Other race 1.3%
Two or more races 4.7%
Latino Origin (of any race)  
Number 164,398
% Latino 3.4%
Age Groups (%)  
Under 5 5.8%
5-17 16.7%
18-64 59.3%
65 and older 18.3%
Median Age 39.5
Gender (% female) 51.5%
Marital Status (15 and older) (%)  
Never married 31.7%
Married 47.6%
Separated, divorced, or widowed 20.6%
Foreign Born
Number 87,772
% Foreign Born 2.0%
Population Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011  
 
Race (%)  
Latino Origin (of any race)  
Age Groups (%)  
Marital Status (15 and older) (%)  
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U.S. Born
Number 4,359,328
Population Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011  
1990-2000  
Race (%)  
Latino Origin (of any race)  
Age Groups (%)  
Marital Status (15 and older) (%)  
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Foreign Born
Number 43,533
% Foreign Born 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Number 3,997,054
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Foreign Born
Foreign Born
Foreign Born
Place of Birth Number
Region of Birth (excluding born at sea)

Note: For 1990, 2000, and current ACS year, the total for the region of birth of the foreign born is different from the total foreign born. This is because the 1990 total excludes those who did not report a country of birth and those born at sea, while the 2000 and the current ACS year totals exclude those born at sea.

191,234
Born in Africa 10,156
Born in Asia 62,409
Born in Europe 22,588
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 90,428
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 4,849
Born in Oceania 804
Top 3 Countries of Birth

Note: These are the largest countries of birth reported by the Census Bureau. Some countries are only listed as part of a larger geographic region. For example, those born in Somalia are included only among those born in Eastern Africa. Therefore, a few states may have larger populations of foreign-born persons born in countries not listed individually in census data. For each of the three years, countries of birth reflect geographic boundaries as of that year.

 
Country #1
Country #2
Country #3
Detailed Region/Country of Birth

Note: These are the largest countries of birth reported by the Census Bureau. Some countries are only listed as part of a larger geographic region. For example, those born in Somalia are included only among those born in Eastern Africa. Therefore, a few states may have larger populations of foreign-born persons born in countries not listed individually in census data. For each of the three years, countries of birth reflect geographic boundaries as of that year.

191,234
Europe 22,588
Northern Europe 4,318
United Kingdom
3,956
Ireland
N
Other Northern Europe
362
Western Europe 9,286
France
449
Germany
8,153
Other Western Europe
684
Southern Europe 1,808
Italy
718
Portugal
N
Other Southern Europe
1,090
Eastern Europe 7,176
Poland
390
Russia
2,036
Other Eastern Europe
4,750
Other Europe (no country specified) N
Asia 62,409
Eastern Asia 22,550
China
9,577

China, excluding Taiwan

8,721

Taiwan

856
Japan
2,880
Korea
10,093
Other Eastern Asia
N
South Central Asia 16,378
India
9,494
Iran
803
Other South Central Asia
6,081
Southeastern Asia 17,250
Philippines
6,389
Vietnam
5,562
Other Southeastern Asia
5,299
Western Asia 6,123
Israel
99
Lebanon
229
Other Western Asia
5,795
Other Asia (no country specified) 108
Africa 10,156
Eastern Africa 2,824
Northern Africa 1,370
Western Africa 3,930
Middle and Southern Africa 1,646
Other Africa (no country specified) 386
Oceania 804
Australia and New Zealand subregion 664
Oceania (no country specified) 140
Americas 95,277
Latin America 90,428
Caribbean
9,404

Cuba

885

Jamaica

4,730

Other Caribbean

3,789
Central America
70,367

Mexico

44,266

El Salvador

3,540

Other Central America

22,561
South America
10,657

Brazil

1,917

Colombia

3,819

Other South America

4,921
Northern America 4,849
Canada
4,849
Other Northern America
N
Period of Entry into U.S.  
Before 1990 30,536
1990-1999 33,773
2000-2009 49,379
Since 2010 77,546
%
Region of Birth (excluding born at the sea)* 100%
Born in Africa 5.3%
Born in Asia 32.6%
Born in Europe 11.8%
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 47.3%
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 2.5%
Born in Oceania 0.4%
Top 3 Countries of Birth*  
Country #1
Country #2
Country #3
Detailed Region/Country of Birth* 100%
Europe 11.8%
Northern Europe 2.3%
United Kingdom 2.1%
Ireland N
Other Northern Europe 0.2%
Western Europe 4.9%
France 0.2%
Germany 4.3%
Other Western Europe 0.4%
Southern Europe 0.9%
Italy 0.4%
Portugal N
Other Southern Europe 0.6%
Eastern Europe 3.8%
Poland 0.2%
Russia 1.1%
Other Eastern Europe 2.5%
Other Europe (no country specified) N
Asia 32.6%
Eastern Asia 11.8%
China 5.0%
China, excluding Taiwan 4.6%
Taiwan 0.4%
Japan 1.5%
Korea 5.3%
Other Eastern Asia N
South Central Asia 8.6%
India 5.0%
Iran 0.4%
Other South Central Asia 3.2%
Southeastern Asia 9.0%
Philippines 3.3%
Vietnam 2.9%
Other Southeastern Asia 2.8%
Western Asia 3.2%
Israel 0.1%
Lebanon 0.1%
Other Western Asia 3.0%
Other Asia (no country specified) 0.1%
Africa 5.3%
Eastern Africa 1.5%
Northern Africa 0.7%
Western Africa 2.1%
Middle and Southern Africa 0.9%
Other Africa (no country specified) 0.2%
Oceania 0.4%
Australia and New Zealand subregion 0.3%
Oceania (no country specified) 0.1%
Americas 49.8%
Latin America 47.3%
Caribbean 4.9%
Cuba 0.5%
Jamaica 2.5%
Other Caribbean 2.0%
Central America 36.8%
Mexico 23.1%
El Salvador 1.9%
Other Central America 11.8%
South America 5.6%
Brazil 1.0%
Colombia 2.0%
Other South America 2.6%
Northern America 2.5%
Canada 2.5%
Other Northern America N
Period of Entry into U.S.  
Before 1980 16.0%
1980-1989 17.7%
1990-1999 25.8%
Since 2000 40.6%
Number
Region of Birth (excluding born at the sea)* 87,772
Born in Africa 3,662
Born in Asia 26,235
Born in Europe 18,415
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 35,574
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 3,352
Cat28 529
Top 3 Countries of Birth*  
Country #1
Country #2
Country #3
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
%
Region of birth 100%
Born in Africa 4.2%
Born in Asia 29.9%
Born in Europe 21.0%
Born in Latin America 40.5%
Born in Northern America 3.8%
Born in Oceania 0.6%
Top 3 Countries of Birth*  
Country #1
Country #2
Country #3
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Number
Region of Birth (excluding born at the sea)* 41,426
Born in Africa 1,813
Born in Asia 17,294
Born in Europe 13,972
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 5,414
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 2,658
Cat21 275
Top 3 Countries of Birth*  
Country #1
Country #2
Country #3
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
%
Region of birth 100%
Born in Africa 4.4%
Born in Asia 41.7%
Born in Europe 33.7%
Born in Latin America 13.1%
Born in Northern America 6.4%
Born in Oceania 0.7%
Top 3 Countries of Birth*  
Country #1
Country #2
Country #3
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Foreign Born
Foreign Born
Foreign Born
Naturalization Number
Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status 191,234
Naturalized citizens 79,262
Noncitizens 111,972
Naturalized Citizens by Period of Naturalization 79,262
Before 1990 12,600
1990-1999 10,776
2000-2009 19,606
2010-2014 9,915
Since 2015 26,365
%
Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status 100%
Naturalized citizens 41.4%
Noncitizens 58.6%
Naturalized Citizens by Period of Naturalization 100%
Before 1980 15.9%
1980-1989 13.6%
1990-1999 24.7%
2000-2009 12.5%
Since 2010 33.3%
Number
Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status 87,772
Naturalized citizens 32,200
Noncitizens 55,572
   
   
   
   
   
   
%
Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status 100%
Naturalized citizens 36.7%
Noncitizens 63.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
Number
Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status 43,533
Naturalized citizens 21,391
Noncitizens 22,142
   
   
   
   
   
   
%
Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status 100%
Naturalized citizens 49.1%
Noncitizens 50.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
Fertility Foreign Born
Female Population (ages 15-50) 60,544
Women (ages 15-50) who gave birth in the last 12 months 5,931
% married among women who gave birth
92.5%
% unmarried (never married, divorced, or widowed) among women who gave birth
7.5%
U.S. Born
Female Population (ages 15-50) 1,124,176
Women (ages 15-50) who gave birth in the last 12 months 55,575
% married among women who gave birth 67.3%
% unmarried (never married, divorced, or widowed) among women who gave birth 32.7%
Foreign Born
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
Household and Family Size

Note: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S Census Bureau’s pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 2) The letter N indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Average household size 3.11
Average family size 3.67
U.S. Born
Average household size 2.42
Average family size 3.03
Foreign Born
   
   
U.S. Born
   
   
Foreign Born
   
   
U.S. Born
   
   
 
Population
Population
Population
Children under 18 Number
Children with Foreign- and Native-Born Parents

Note: Refers to children between ages 0 and 17 (regardless of their nativity) who reside with at least one parent. This means that the number of children shown here is smaller than the overall number of U.S. children under 18. Since 2013, the U.S. Census Bureau includes children of same-sex married couples in its count of children in families and subfamilies.

 
Children under age 18 with 1,024,439
Only native parent(s)
925,945
One or more foreign-born parents
98,494

Child is native

87,365

Child is foreign born

11,129
Children under age 6 with 322,736
Only native parent(s)
291,398
One or more foreign-born parents
31,338

Child is native

29,028

Child is foreign born

2,310
Children between ages 6 and 17 with 701,703
Only native parent(s)
634,547
One or more foreign-born parents
67,156

Child is native

58,337

Child is foreign born

8,819
Children in Low-Income Families

Note: Refers to children between ages 0 and 17 (regardless of their nativity) who reside with at least one parent. This means that the number of children shown here is smaller than the overall number of U.S. children under 18. Since 2013, the U.S. Census Bureau includes children of same-sex married couples in its count of children in families and subfamilies. The term "low-income families" refers to families with annual incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty threshold.

444,654
Only native parents 394,297
One or more foreign-born parents 50,357
%
Children with Foreign- and Native-Born Parents*  
Children under age 18 with 100%
Only native parent(s) 90.4%
One or more foreign-born parents 9.6%
Child is native 8.5%
Child is foreign born 1.1%
Children under age 6 with 100%
Only native parent(s) 90.3%
One or more foreign-born parents 9.7%
Child is native 9.0%
Child is foreign born 0.7%
Children between ages 6 and 17 with 100%
Only native parent(s) 90.4%
One or more foreign-born parents 9.6%
Child is native 8.3%
Child is foreign born 1.3%
Children in Low-Income Families* 100%
Only native parents 88.7%
One or more foreign-born parents 11.3%
Number
Children with Foreign- and Native-Born Parents  
Children under age 18 with 1,059,242
Only native parent(s) 1,023,154
One or more foreign-born parents 36,088
Child is native 28,910
Child is foreign born 7,178
Children under age 6 with 339,918
Only native parent(s) 326,467
One or more foreign-born parents 13,451
Child is native 11,859
Child is foreign born 1,592
Children between ages 6 and 17 with 719,324
Only native parent(s) 696,687
One or more foreign-born parents 22,637
Child is native 17,051
Child is foreign born 5,586
Children in Low-Income Families* 467,040
Only native parents 450,841
One or more foreign-born parents 16,199
%
Children with Foreign- and Native-Born Parents  
Children under age 18 with 100%
Only native parent(s) 96.6%
One or more foreign-born parents 3.4%
Child is native 2.7%
Child is foreign born 0.7%
Children under age 6 with 100%
Only native parent(s) 96.0%
One or more foreign-born parents 4.0%
Child is native 3.5%
Child is foreign born 0.5%
Children between ages 6 and 17 with 100%
Only native parent(s) 96.9%
One or more foreign-born parents 3.1%
Child is native 2.4%
Child is foreign born 0.8%
Children in Low-Income Families* 100%
Only native parents 96.5%
One or more foreign-born parents 3.5%
Number
Children with Foreign- and Native-Born Parents  
Children under age 18 with 1,002,651
Only native parent(s) 982,040
One or more foreign-born parents 20,611
Child is native 17,503
Child is foreign born 3,108
Children under age 6 with 325,144
Only native parent(s) 317,763
One or more foreign-born parents 7,381
Child is native 6,907
Child is foreign born 474
Children between ages 6 and 17 with 677,507
Only native parent(s) 664,277
One or more foreign-born parents 13,230
Child is native 10,596
Child is foreign born 2,634
Children in Low-Income Families* 478,701
Only native parents 471,892
One or more foreign-born parents 6,809
%
Children with Foreign- and Native-Born Parents  
Children under age 18 with 100%
Only native parent(s) 97.9%
One or more foreign-born parents 2.1%
Child is native 1.7%
Child is foreign born 0.3%
Children under age 6 with 100%
Only native parent(s) 97.7%
One or more foreign-born parents 2.3%
Child is native 2.1%
Child is foreign born 0.1%
Children between ages 6 and 17 with 100%
Only native parent(s) 98.0%
One or more foreign-born parents 2.0%
Child is native 1.6%
Child is foreign born 0.4%
Children in Low-Income Families* 100%
Only native parents 98.6%
One or more foreign-born parents 1.4%

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2022 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, click here. For ACS methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Matthew Sobek, Daniel Backman, Annie Chen, Grace Cooper, Stephanie Richards, Renae Rogers, and Megan Schouweiler. IPUMS USA: Version 14.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2023. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V14.0​.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term "low-income families" refers to families with annual incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty threshold.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • Race and Hispanic origin: In preparation for the 2020 Decennial Census, the Census Bureau has made some improvements and changes in how the respondents were asked about their race and Hispanic origin on the 2020 decennial Census form. The goal was to achieve a more accurate portrait of how U.S. residents self-identify. The same changes in the questionnaire design were implemented in the subsequent ACS as well. Note that the racial composition of the U.S. population in the current ACS looks different from pre-2020 data. For instance, the proportion of people who reported “two or more races” has increased, while the proportion of “white alone” decreased, reflecting both the growth of a more racially diverse population and the changes in the questionnaire design. Race and Hispanic origin comparisons between the current ACS and pre-2020 data should be made with caution, taking into account the changes in the questionnaire design. For more details, visit the Census Bureau’s Resource Library.
  • For “Median Age” and “Household Size”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.
  • Region of birth: For 1990, 2000, and current ACS year, the total for the region of birth of the foreign born is different from the total foreign born. This is because the 1990 total excludes those who did not report a country of birth and those born at sea, while the 2000 census and the current ACS year totals exclude those born at sea.
  • Countries of birth: These are the largest countries of birth reported by the Census Bureau. Some countries are only listed as part of a larger geographic region. For example, those born in Somalia are included only among those born in Eastern Africa. Therefore, a few states may have larger populations of foreign-born persons born in countries not listed individually in census data. For each of the three years, countries of birth reflect geographic boundaries as of that year.
  • Children: The data here include children between ages 0 and 17 (regardless of their nativity) who reside with at least one parent. This means that the number of children shown here is smaller than the overall number of U.S. children under 18. Since 2013, the U.S. Census Bureau has included children of same-sex married couples in its count of children in families and subfamilies.