E.g., 08/09/2020
E.g., 08/09/2020

State Language Data - NY

New York

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,424,384
Speak only English 24.1%
Speak English "very well" 30.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 15.0%
% change: 1990-2000 48.7%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 2,590,414
Speak only English 28.8%
Speak English "very well" 34.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 36.9%
Noncitizens 1,833,970
Speak only English 17.5%
Speak English "very well" 25.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.0%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 13,977,983
Speak only English 83.6%
Speak English ""very well"" 13.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3.1%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -24.8%
% change: 1990-2000 -2.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,834,479
Speak only English 25.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 13,914,631
Speak only English 85.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 10.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,802,875
Speak only English 28.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 13,873,544
Speak only English 86.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 9.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 2,924,843
Speak only English 2,037,214
Speak language other than English 887,629
Speak English "very well"
679,207
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
208,422
Speak Spanish 473,643
Speak English "very well"
377,543
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
96,100
Ages 18-64 12,265,459
Speak only English 8,341,035
Speak language other than English 3,924,424
Speak English "very well"
2,232,750
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
1,691,674
Speak Spanish 1,944,040
Speak English "very well"
1,070,054
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
873,986
65 and Older 3,212,065
Speak only English 2,378,726
Speak language other than English 833,339
Speak English "very well"
303,435
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
529,904
Speak Spanish 332,404
Speak English "very well"
113,814
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
218,590
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 69.7%
Speak language other than English 30.3%
Speak English "very well" 23.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.1%
Speak Spanish 16.2%
Speak English "very well" 12.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.3%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 68.0%
Speak language other than English 32.0%
Speak English "very well" 18.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 13.8%
Speak Spanish 15.8%
Speak English "very well" 8.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.1%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 74.1%
Speak language other than English 25.9%
Speak English "very well" 9.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 16.5%
Speak Spanish 10.3%
Speak English "very well" 3.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.8%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 18,402,367
Speak only English 12,756,975
Speak language other than English 5,645,392
Spanish 2,750,087
Speak English "very well" 1,561,411
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,188,676
French (Including Cajun) 145,979
Speak English "very well" 110,769
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 35,210
Haitian 136,800
Speak English "very well" 85,485
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51,315
Italian 136,805
Speak English "very well" 98,893
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37,912
Portuguese 45,495
Speak English "very well" 31,630
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,865
German 55,253
Speak English "very well" 46,674
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,579
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 179,905
Speak English "very well" 105,882
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 74,023
Russian 221,269
Speak English "very well" 96,454
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 124,815
Polish 82,761
Speak English "very well" 47,847
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 34,914
Other Slavic Languages 69,725
Speak English "very well" 44,980
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 24,745
Armenian 8,049
Speak English "very well" 5,906
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,143
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 20,655
Speak English "very well" 13,013
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,642
Gujarati 17,541
Speak English "very well" 11,851
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,690
Hindi 62,194
Speak English "very well" 45,570
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,624
Urdu 70,052
Speak English "very well" 40,929
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29,123
Punjabi 36,273
Speak English "very well" 21,321
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,952
Bengali 138,122
Speak English "very well" 70,131
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 67,991
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 35,694
Speak English "very well" 19,728
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,966
Other Indo-European Languages 142,990
Speak English "very well" 97,807
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45,183
Telugu 8,783
Speak English "very well" 6,907
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,876
Tamil 10,706
Speak English "very well" 7,783
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,923
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 30,545
Speak English "very well" 22,840
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,705
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 590,745
Speak English "very well" 211,569
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 379,176
Japanese 34,316
Speak English "very well" 16,895
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17,421
Korean 89,629
Speak English "very well" 42,132
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 47,497
Hmong 74
Speak English "very well" 74
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 23,624
Speak English "very well" 9,819
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,805
Khmer 1,370
Speak English "very well" 696
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 674
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 13,728
Speak English "very well" 6,366
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,362
Other Languages of Asia 60,217
Speak English "very well" 30,920
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29,297
Tagalog (including Filipino) 76,327
Speak English "very well" 56,689
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,638
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 6,273
Speak English "very well" 4,181
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,092
Arabic 109,743
Speak English "very well" 64,778
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 44,965
Hebrew 65,346
Speak English "very well" 53,932
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,414
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 16,905
Speak English "very well" 10,827
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,078
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 102,480
Speak English "very well" 79,841
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22,639
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 11,772
Speak English "very well" 6,312
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,460
Native Languages of North America 5,428
Speak English "very well" 5,226
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 202
Other and Unspecified Languages 31,732
Speak English "very well" 21,324
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,408
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 69.3%
Field 308 30.7%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 56.8%
Field 310 43.2%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 75.9%
Field 315 24.1%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 62.5%
Field 316 37.5%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 72.3%
Field 319 27.7%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 69.5%
Field 322 30.5%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 84.5%
Field 325 15.5%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 58.9%
Field 328 41.1%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 43.6%
Field 331 56.4%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 57.8%
Field 334 42.2%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 64.5%
Field 337 35.5%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 73.4%
Field 340 26.6%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 63.0%
Field 343 37.0%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 67.6%
Field 346 32.4%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 73.3%
Field 349 26.7%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 58.4%
Field 352 41.6%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 58.8%
Field 355 41.2%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 50.8%
Field 358 49.2%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 55.3%
Field 361 44.7%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 68.4%
Field 364 31.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 78.6%
Field 367 21.4%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 72.7%
Field 370 27.3%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 74.8%
Field 373 25.2%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 35.8%
Field 376 64.2%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 49.2%
Field 379 50.8%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 47.0%
Field 382 53.0%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 41.6%
Field 388 58.4%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 50.8%
Field 391 49.2%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 46.4%
Field 394 53.6%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 51.3%
Field 397 48.7%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 74.3%
Field 400 25.7%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 66.7%
Field 403 33.3%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 59.0%
Field 406 41.0%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 82.5%
Field 409 17.5%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 64.0%
Field 412 36.0%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 77.9%
Field 415 22.1%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 53.6%
Field 418 46.4%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 96.3%
Field 421 3.7%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 67.2%
Field 424 32.8%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,973,903
Less than high school diploma 23.6%
High school diploma or GED 25.4%
Some college or associate's degree 18.5%
Bachelor's degree 18.7%
Graduate or professional degree 13.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 53.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 25.4%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 -11.9%
% change: 1990-2000 18.3%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 68.2%
% change: 1990-2000 68.6%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 2,437,533
Less than high school diploma 18.9%
High school diploma or GED 24.8%
Some college or associate's degree 21.1%
Bachelor's degree 20.3%
Graduate or professional degree 14.8%
Noncitizens (%) 1,536,370
Less than high school diploma 30.9%
High school diploma or GED 26.3%
Some college or associate's degree 14.4%
Bachelor's degree 16.1%
Graduate or professional degree 12.3%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 9,698,440
Less than high school diploma 8.5%
High school diploma or GED 26.2%
Some college or associate's degree 26.2%
Bachelor's degree 21.7%
Graduate or professional degree 17.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -47.4%
% change: 1990-2000 -24.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 42.4%
% change: 1990-2000 17.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,151,322
Less than high school diploma 33.7%
High school diploma or GED 23.2%
Some college or associate's degree 18.6%
Bachelor's degree 13.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 40.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 22.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 9,404,196
Less than high school diploma 16.6%
High school diploma or GED 29.2%
Some college or associate's degree 25.8%
Bachelor's degree 16.1%
Graduate or professional degree 12.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,312,062
Less than high school diploma 38.8%
High school diploma or GED 23.6%
Some college or associate's degree 17.8%
Bachelor's degree 10.9%
Graduate or professional degree 8.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 30.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 16.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 9,471,191
Less than high school diploma 21.7%
High school diploma or GED 31.0%
Some college or associate's degree 23.3%
Bachelor's degree 13.9%
Graduate or professional degree 10.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.