E.g., 06/19/2024
E.g., 06/19/2024

State Language Data - WA

 
Washington
United States
Language & Education
2022
2022
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,179,623
Speak only English 18.1%
Speak English "very well" 41.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40.7%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2022 72.0%
% change: 1990-2000 142.2%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 580,563
Speak only English 23.2%
Speak English "very well" 43%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33.8%
Noncitizens 599,060
Speak only English 13.2%
Speak English "very well" 39.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 47.5%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,184,441
Speak only English 90.4%
Speak English ""very well"" 7.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 40.7%
% change: 1990-2000 40.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 45,898,485
Speak only English 16.9%
Speak English "very well" 37.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 46.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 34.9%
% change: 1990-2000 71.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 24,463,356
Speak only English 20.7%
Speak English "very well" 42.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 36.9%
Noncitizens 21,435,129
Speak only English 12.5%
Speak English "very well" 31.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 56.4%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 269,030,878
Speak only English 88.4%
Speak English ""very well"" 9.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -4.6%
% change: 1990-2000 17.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
Population (age 5 and older)
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,222,305
Speak only English 947,350
Speak language other than English 274,955
Speak English "very well"
213,457
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
61,498
Speak Spanish 153,743
Speak English "very well"
118,816
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
34,927
Ages 18-64 4,832,617
Speak only English 3,709,526
Speak language other than English 1,123,091
Speak English "very well"
698,018
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
425,073
Speak Spanish 456,066
Speak English "very well"
255,982
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
200,084
65 and Older 1,309,142
Speak only English 1,150,592
Speak language other than English 158,550
Speak English "very well"
63,940
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
94,610
Speak Spanish 37,898
Speak English "very well"
17,458
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
20,440
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 77.5%
Speak language other than English 22.5%
Speak English "very well" 17.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.0%
Speak Spanish 12.6%
Speak English "very well" 9.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.9%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 76.8%
Speak language other than English 23.2%
Speak English "very well" 14.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.8%
Speak Spanish 9.4%
Speak English "very well" 5.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.1%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 87.9%
Speak language other than English 12.1%
Speak English "very well" 4.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.2%
Speak Spanish 2.9%
Speak English "very well" 1.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.6%
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 53,967,403
Speak only English 42,395,802
Speak language other than English 11,571,601
Speak English "very well"
8,976,300
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,595,301
Speak Spanish 7,972,525
Speak English "very well"
6,182,632
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
1,789,893
Ages 18-64 203,139,645
Speak only English 154,409,107
Speak language other than English 48,730,538
Speak English "very well"
29,848,324
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
18,882,214
Speak Spanish 29,658,708
Speak English "very well"
17,242,859
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
12,415,849
65 and Older 57,822,315
Speak only English 48,882,668
Speak language other than English 8,939,647
Speak English "very well"
3,896,213
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
5,043,434
Speak Spanish 4,401,305
Speak English "very well"
1,849,181
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,552,124
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 78.6%
Speak language other than English 21.4%
Speak English "very well" 16.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.8%
Speak Spanish 14.8%
Speak English "very well" 11.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.3%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 76.0%
Speak language other than English 24.0%
Speak English "very well" 14.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.3%
Speak Spanish 14.6%
Speak English "very well" 8.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.1%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 84.5%
Speak language other than English 15.5%
Speak English "very well" 6.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.7%
Speak Spanish 7.6%
Speak English "very well" 3.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.4%
 
Population (age 5 and older)
Population (age 5 and older)
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 7,364,064
Speak only English 5,807,468
Speak language other than English 1,556,596
Spanish 647,707
Speak English "very well" 392,256
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 255,451
French (Including Cajun) 27,400
Speak English "very well" 23,798
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,602
Haitian 3,602
Speak English "very well" 1,901
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,701
Italian 5,774
Speak English "very well" 4,931
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 843
Portuguese 12,284
Speak English "very well" 8,179
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,105
German 24,754
Speak English "very well" 21,471
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,283
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 5,593
Speak English "very well" 4,916
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 677
Russian 64,225
Speak English "very well" 40,061
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 24,164
Polish 6,526
Speak English "very well" 4,727
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,799
Other Slavic Languages 43,548
Speak English "very well" 23,900
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,648
Armenian 2,249
Speak English "very well" 1,864
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 385
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 14,711
Speak English "very well" 7,983
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,728
Gujarati 7,572
Speak English "very well" 6,364
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,208
Hindi 41,669
Speak English "very well" 36,883
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,786
Urdu 7,878
Speak English "very well" 5,903
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,975
Punjabi 16,152
Speak English "very well" 8,700
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,452
Bengali 4,952
Speak English "very well" 4,615
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 337
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 12,007
Speak English "very well" 8,977
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,030
Other Indo-European Languages 19,389
Speak English "very well" 15,112
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,277
Telugu 20,723
Speak English "very well" 16,207
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,516
Tamil 10,898
Speak English "very well" 9,759
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,139
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 10,163
Speak English "very well" 8,648
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,515
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 141,935
Speak English "very well" 81,668
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 60,267
Japanese 25,636
Speak English "very well" 17,624
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,012
Korean 54,990
Speak English "very well" 24,893
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 30,097
Hmong 3,366
Speak English "very well" 1,575
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,791
Vietnamese 74,548
Speak English "very well" 33,269
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41,279
Khmer 11,389
Speak English "very well" 4,980
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,409
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 15,713
Speak English "very well" 7,785
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,928
Other Languages of Asia 19,378
Speak English "very well" 10,736
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,642
Tagalog (including Filipino) 60,294
Speak English "very well" 40,245
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,049
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 35,011
Speak English "very well" 23,469
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,542
Arabic 27,282
Speak English "very well" 19,942
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,340
Hebrew 4,059
Speak English "very well" 3,594
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 465
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 36,789
Speak English "very well" 21,927
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,862
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 8,500
Speak English "very well" 6,097
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,403
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 15,618
Speak English "very well" 11,376
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,242
Native Languages of North America 5,293
Speak English "very well" 4,723
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 570
Other and Unspecified Languages 7,019
Speak English "very well" 4,357
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,662
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 78.9%
Field 308 21.1%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 60.6%
Field 310 39.4%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 86.9%
Field 315 13.1%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 52.8%
Field 316 47.2%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 85.4%
Field 319 14.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 66.6%
Field 322 33.4%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 86.7%
Field 325 13.3%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 87.9%
Field 328 12.1%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 62.4%
Field 331 37.6%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 72.4%
Field 334 27.6%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 54.9%
Field 337 45.1%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 82.9%
Field 340 17.1%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 54.3%
Field 343 45.7%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 84.0%
Field 346 16.0%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 88.5%
Field 349 11.5%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 74.9%
Field 352 25.1%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 53.9%
Field 355 46.1%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 93.2%
Field 358 6.8%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 74.8%
Field 361 25.2%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 77.9%
Field 364 22.1%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 78.2%
Field 367 21.8%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 89.5%
Field 370 10.5%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 85.1%
Field 373 14.9%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 57.5%
Field 376 42.5%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 68.7%
Field 379 31.3%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 45.3%
Field 382 54.7%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 46.8%
Field 385 53.2%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 44.6%
Field 388 55.4%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 43.7%
Field 391 56.3%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 49.5%
Field 394 50.5%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 55.4%
Field 397 44.6%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 66.7%
Field 400 33.3%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 67.0%
Field 403 33.0%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 73.1%
Field 406 26.9%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 88.5%
Field 409 11.5%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 59.6%
Field 412 40.4%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 71.7%
Field 415 28.3%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 72.8%
Field 418 27.2%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 89.2%
Field 421 10.8%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 62.1%
Field 424 37.9%
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 314,929,363
Speak only English 245,687,577
Speak language other than English 69,241,786
Spanish 42,032,538
Speak English "very well" 25,274,672
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,757,866
French (Including Cajun) 1,222,970
Speak English "very well" 964,753
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 258,217
Haitian 910,380
Speak English "very well" 572,320
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 338,060
Italian 521,786
Speak English "very well" 393,668
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 128,118
Portuguese 997,882
Speak English "very well" 631,121
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 366,761
German 876,103
Speak English "very well" 740,485
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 135,618
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 620,027
Speak English "very well" 416,556
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 203,471
Russian 974,829
Speak English "very well" 583,052
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 391,777
Polish 482,519
Speak English "very well" 302,366
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 180,153
Other Slavic Languages 680,594
Speak English "very well" 432,348
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 248,246
Armenian 239,731
Speak English "very well" 147,828
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 91,903
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 514,547
Speak English "very well" 319,040
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 195,507
Gujarati 456,887
Speak English "very well" 310,934
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 145,953
Hindi 881,242
Speak English "very well" 734,763
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 146,479
Urdu 518,759
Speak English "very well" 375,294
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 143,465
Punjabi 342,635
Speak English "very well" 209,065
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 133,570
Bengali 416,062
Speak English "very well" 245,121
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 170,941
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 510,267
Speak English "very well" 345,942
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 164,325
Other Indo-European Languages 914,710
Speak English "very well" 645,534
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 269,176
Telugu 506,033
Speak English "very well" 413,507
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 92,526
Tamil 341,204
Speak English "very well" 287,364
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53,840
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 294,033
Speak English "very well" 233,881
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 60,152
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 3,507,304
Speak English "very well" 1,715,209
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,792,095
Japanese 431,996
Speak English "very well" 260,496
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 171,500
Korean 1,110,875
Speak English "very well" 543,851
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 567,024
Hmong 234,119
Speak English "very well" 143,533
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 90,586
Vietnamese 1,537,826
Speak English "very well" 660,474
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 877,352
Khmer 198,275
Speak English "very well" 90,561
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 107,714
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 301,544
Speak English "very well" 153,393
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 148,151
Other Languages of Asia 503,224
Speak English "very well" 266,361
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 236,863
Tagalog (including Filipino) 1,757,649
Speak English "very well" 1,225,111
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 532,538
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 485,099
Speak English "very well" 314,587
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 170,512
Arabic 1,428,025
Speak English "very well" 950,212
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 477,813
Hebrew 221,173
Speak English "very well" 185,203
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 35,970
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 623,546
Speak English "very well" 380,507
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 243,039
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 673,386
Speak English "very well" 538,204
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 135,182
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 342,318
Speak English "very well" 236,146
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 106,172
Native Languages of North America 311,685
Speak English "very well" 252,763
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58,922
Other and Unspecified Languages 318,004
Speak English "very well" 224,612
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 93,392
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 78.0%
Field 308 22.0%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 60.1%
Field 310 39.9%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 78.9%
Field 315 21.1%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 62.9%
Field 316 37.1%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 75.4%
Field 319 24.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 63.2%
Field 322 36.8%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 84.5%
Field 325 15.5%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 67.2%
Field 328 32.8%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 59.8%
Field 331 40.2%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 62.7%
Field 334 37.3%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 63.5%
Field 337 36.5%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 61.7%
Field 340 38.3%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 62.0%
Field 343 38.0%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 68.1%
Field 346 31.9%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 83.4%
Field 349 16.6%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 72.3%
Field 352 27.7%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 61.0%
Field 355 39.0%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 58.9%
Field 358 41.1%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 67.8%
Field 361 32.2%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 70.6%
Field 364 29.4%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 81.7%
Field 367 18.3%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 84.2%
Field 370 15.8%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 79.5%
Field 373 20.5%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 48.9%
Field 376 51.1%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 60.3%
Field 379 39.7%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 49.0%
Field 382 51.0%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 61.3%
Field 385 38.7%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 42.9%
Field 388 57.1%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 45.7%
Field 391 54.3%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 50.9%
Field 394 49.1%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 52.9%
Field 397 47.1%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 69.7%
Field 400 30.3%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 64.9%
Field 403 35.1%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 66.5%
Field 406 33.5%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 83.7%
Field 409 16.3%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 61.0%
Field 412 39.0%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 79.9%
Field 415 20.1%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 69.0%
Field 418 31.0%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 81.1%
Field 421 18.9%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 70.6%
Field 424 29.4%
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,040,375
Less than high school diploma 19.2%
High school diploma or GED 18.4%
Some college or associate's degree 20.0%
Bachelor's degree 21.5%
Graduate or professional degree 21.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 46.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 20.5%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2022 40.0%
% change: 1990-2000 78.6%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2022 250.7%
% change: 1990-2000 122.2%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 539,993
Less than high school diploma 13.6%
High school diploma or GED 17.8%
Some college or associate's degree 25.7%
Bachelor's degree 24.2%
Graduate or professional degree 18.8%
Noncitizens (%) 500,382
Less than high school diploma 25.2%
High school diploma or GED 19%
Some college or associate's degree 13.9%
Bachelor's degree 18.5%
Graduate or professional degree 23.3%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,429,834
Less than high school diploma 5.2%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 33.8%
Bachelor's degree 24.4%
Graduate or professional degree 14.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -35.1%
% change: 1990-2000 -17.3%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 83.0%
% change: 1990-2000 43.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 40,782,938
Less than high school diploma 24.9%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 18.3%
Bachelor's degree 19.1%
Graduate or professional degree 15.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 42.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 17.3%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 9.4%
% change: 1990-2000 47.9%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 141.3%
% change: 1990-2000 88.9%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 22,939,352
Less than high school diploma 17.9%
High school diploma or GED 21%
Some college or associate's degree 21.8%
Bachelor's degree 22.1%
Graduate or professional degree 17.1%
Noncitizens (%) 17,843,586
Less than high school diploma 34%
High school diploma or GED 23.5%
Some college or associate's degree 13.6%
Bachelor's degree 15.3%
Graduate or professional degree 13.6%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 188,924,199
Less than high school diploma 7.2%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 30.0%
Bachelor's degree 22.2%
Graduate or professional degree 13.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -48.3%
% change: 1990-2000 -19.8%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 75.7%
% change: 1990-2000 32.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2022 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, click here. For ACS methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Matthew Sobek, Daniel Backman, Annie Chen, Grace Cooper, Stephanie Richards, Renae Rogers, and Megan Schouweiler. IPUMS USA: Version 14.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2023. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V14.0​.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.