E.g., 11/13/2018
E.g., 11/13/2018

Profile of the Unauthorized Population - US

Profile of the Unauthorized Population:
United States

DemographicsEstimate% of Total
Unauthorized Population11,009,000100%
Top Countries of Birth
El Salvador465,0004%
Regions of Birth
Mexico and Central America7,854,00071%
South America673,0006%
Years of U.S. Residence
Less than 51,989,00018%
5 to 92,569,00023%
10 to 142,943,00027%
15 to 191,802,00016%
20 or more1,705,00015%
Under 16866,0008%
16 to 241,653,00015%
25 to 343,094,00028%
35 to 442,708,00025%
45 to 541,551,00014%
55 and over1,137,00010%
FamilyEstimate% of Total
Parental Status
Population ages 15 and older10,263,000100%
Reside with at least one U.S.-citizen child under 183,350,00033%
Reside with noncitizen children only under 18573,0006%
Reside with no children 6,341,00062%
Marital Status
Population ages 15 and older10,263,000100%
Never married4,155,00040%
Married to a U.S. citizen818,0008%
Married to a legal permanent resident (LPR)633,0006%
Married to non-U.S. citizen/non-LPR2,658,00026%
Divorced, separated, widowed2,000,00019%
Education and LanguageEstimate% of Total
School Enrollment of Children and Youth
Population ages 3 to 17 1,092,000 100%
Enrolled 1,003,000 92%
Not enrolled 89,000 8%
Population ages 3 to 12507,000100%
Not enrolled51,00010%
Population ages 13 to 17586,000100%
Not enrolled38,0006%
Population ages 18 to 241,390,000100%
Not enrolled982,00071%
Educational Attainment of Adults
Population ages 25 and older8,489,000100%
0-5 grade1,146,00013%
6-8 grade1,676,00020%
9-12 grade1,441,00017%
High school diploma or GED2,094,00025%
Some college or associate’s degree1,029,00012%
Bachelor’s, graduate, or professional degree1,103,00013%
English Proficiency
Population ages 5 and older10,926,000100%
Speak only English819,0007%
Speak English "very well"2,504,00023%
Speak English "well"2,290,00021%
Speak English "not well"/"not at all"5,313,00049%
Top 5 Languages Spoken at Home
Population ages 5 and older10,926,000100%
Hindi and related263,0002%
WorkforceEstimate% of Total
Labor Force Participation
Civilian population ages 16 and older10,139,000100%
Not in the labor force2,970,00029%
Top Industries of Employment
Civilian employed population ages 16 and older7,731,000100%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services1,361,00018%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste management1,045,00014%
Retail trade682,0009%
EconomicsEstimate% of Total
Family Income
Below 50% of the poverty level1,494,00014%
50-99% of the poverty level2,028,00018%
100-149% of the poverty level1,909,00017%
150-199% of the poverty level1,602,00015%
At or above 200% of the poverty level3,976,00036%
Access to Health Insurance
Home Ownership*


Source: Migration Policy Institute (MPI) analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data from the pooled 2012-16 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), drawing on a methodology developed in consultation with James Bachmeier of Temple University and Jennifer Van Hook of The Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute.

Note: For U.S., state, and county estimates of the unauthorized population potentially eligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, click here.

Data-related notes
* “Homeowners” are unauthorized immigrants residing in homes that are owned, not rented.

+ Includes the following Colorado counties: Adams, Broomfield, Clear Creek, Douglas, Elbert, Gilpin, and Jefferson, as well as portions of Arapahoe, Boulder, and Weld counties.

++ NECTAs refer to New England City and Town Areas, geographic entities defined by the U.S. Census Bureau for use as alternatives to counties in the six-state New England region.

  1. Estimate for China includes Hong Kong but excludes Taiwan; estimate for Korea includes South Korea and North Korea.
  2. “School Enrollment of Children and Youth” refers to unauthorized immigrants who reported attending school or college at any time in the three months prior to the survey.
  3. For languages, “Chinese” includes Mandarin, Cantonese, and other Chinese languages; “English” includes English, Jamaican Creole, Krio, Pidgin Krio, and other English-based Creole languages; “French” includes French, Patois, and Cajun; “Pacific Island languages” includes Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, Sebuano, Chamorro, Guamanian, Marshallese, Trukese, Tongan, and other Austronesian languages, but excludes Tagalog and Filipino, which are reported separately; “Portuguese” includes Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole; “Sub-Saharan African” includes Swahili or other Bantu languages, Mande, Fulani, Kru, and other unspecified African languages; “Tagalog” includes Tagalog and Filipino.
  4. For industries, “Other services” are miscellaneous services, not including the following services listed separately: (1) professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste management services; (2) educational services; (3) health and social services; and (4) accommodation and food services, arts, entertainment, and recreation.
  5.  “-” estimates are zero, not applicable, or not displayed due to small sample size.
  6. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.

Methodology in Brief:
MPI’s method uses information from the SIPP to assign legal status to noncitizens in the ACS. In the SIPP, noncitizens report whether they currently have lawful permanent resident (LPR) status—i.e., a green card. Those without LPR status may be recent refugees, temporary visitors (e.g., students or high-skilled H-1B workers), or unauthorized immigrants. Our method maps characteristics such as country of birth, year of U.S. entry, age, gender, and educational attainment between the two surveys, and those noncitizens in the ACS who have characteristics similar to those reporting LPR status in the SIPP are coded as LPRs in the ACS. The remaining noncitizens—who are similar in characteristics to those not reporting LPR status in the SIPP—are classified as either unauthorized or legal temporary migrants, depending on whether they meet the qualifications for H-1B and the other temporary visa classifications. This method was developed in consultation with James Bachmeier of Temple University and Jennifer Van Hook of The Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute. For more detail on the methods, see Jeanne Batalova, Sarah Hooker, Randy Capps, and James D. Bachmeier, DACA at the Two-Year Mark: A National and State Profile of Youth Eligible and Applying for Deferred Action (Washington, DC: MPI, 2014). Please note that these estimates use commonly accepted benchmarks from other research studies to determine the size of the unauthorized population and response rates to surveys. These estimates have the same sampling and coverage errors as any other survey-based estimates that rely on ACS and other Census Bureau data.