You are here
Canada: A Northern Refuge for Central Americans
Central American migration to Canada is a fairly recent development. Until the 1960s, the country's climate, geographic distance, and cultural unfamiliarity discouraged migration from Central and South America. However, as Canadian involvement in Latin American affairs expanded during the administration of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau — through trade, investment, and diplomatic representation — so did its visibility and lure.
Canada's generous accommodation of thousands of Cuban and Chilean refugees during the 1960s and 1970s made it an attractive option for would-be immigrants and refugees from throughout the Americas over the next few decades. At the same time, U.S. and Mexican policies toward some Central American refugees also helped push those flows further northward.
Canada: A "Natural Haven"
Canada's response to the revolutions in Central America, which differed in significant ways from the United States, made it a natural haven for those displaced by the political upheaval. While the Reagan and Bush administrations saw the Central American revolutions as a strategic Cold War struggle for control of regional allies, Canada's position was more in line with the countries that supported the Contadora peace process, viewing the conflicts as homegrown, and the logical consequence of the unequal distribution of economic resources and political power.
While the United States regarded it their historic right and duty to "protect" the region, Canada opposed military aid or any actions that might perpetuate the wars. Instead, Canada stepped up its relief efforts in the region, channeling funds through the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the Red Cross, and Canadian NGOs to provide emergency aid such as food, medicine, and clothing as well as assistance in finding durable solutions and relocating displaced people.
Canada enacted a variety of measures to protect the displaced. Through UNHCR, Canadian officials facilitated the immigration of Guatemalan refugees living in Costa Rica and Mexico.
Canadian consulates in the United States were instructed to issue visas to Central Americans facing deportation. And the government established a moratorium on the deportation of Salvadorans and Guatemalans, even if they entered the country illegally.
Between 1982 and 1987, Canada admitted 15,877 refugees from Central America, the majority of them Salvadoran (11,251). Under a special program, 4,444 family members were allowed entry, bringing the five-year total to 20,955. By the end of the decade, Salvadorans had replaced Chileans as the principal immigrant group from Latin America.
The Central Americans' Path to Canada
Overland migration from Central America to Canada also increased as the violence in the region escalated, refugee camps filled up, and more restrictive immigration policies were enacted in Mexico and the United States.
Interviews with landed claimants revealed that most had spent some time in Mexico and/or the United States before moving on to Canada. A 1992 profile of Salvadorans in Montreal, for example, found that 40 percent had lived in the United States for at least one year before moving to Canada; 33 percent had lived in Mexico for at least six months before moving to Canada; and the rest had chosen Canada as the country of first asylum.
The Salvadorans moved further northward because the approval rate for asylum applications was generally much higher than in the United States. From 1980 to 1986, for example, between 21 and 60 percent of Salvadoran applications were approved; and between 28 and 71 percent of Guatemalan applications were approved. By comparison, only three to five percent of Salvadoran and Guatemalan petitions in the United States were successful during this period.
Central American Numbers
By the end of the 1980s, Salvadorans were the largest group of Central Americans — legal and undocumented — in Canada. In 1987, there were 22,283 Salvadorans living legally in Canada, and thousands more were believed to be working in the underground economy (see Table 1). Most were young, single males.
Table 1. Flow of Central American Immigrants to Canada, 1961 to 2001
Like their conationals in Mexico and the United States, they had urban, working-class backgrounds and averaged 10 years of schooling. And, as in these other countries, the young migrants came with a variety of skills and life experiences, or human capital, and came to occupy important niches in the Canadian economy.
Guatemalans and Nicaraguans were comparatively fewer in number. In 1987, there were 7,700 Guatemalans and 7,081 Nicaraguans. Some attributed the smaller numbers of Guatemalans to UNHCR policies that encouraged them to remain closer to their country of origin to facilitate repatriation. Indeed, Guatemalans living in Mexico, Honduras, and Costa Rica were more likely to repatriate in the 1990s than those living in northern countries.
The settlement patterns established by the first refugees in the early 1980s — most of whom settled in Mexico — also affected the destinations of those who followed later in the decade. Early Nicaraguan migrants, in turn, settled largely in the United States and Costa Rica, and these communities served as magnets for those who emigrated later in the decade.
Nicaraguans who traveled to Canada found it slightly easier than other Central Americans to receive asylum but, as in the United States, after the defeat of the Sandinistas in 1990, Nicaraguan petitions were increasingly denied since the justification for migration was believed to no longer exist.
Central Americans in Canada as a whole were concentrated in two cities. In 1987, roughly 15,000 Central Americans lived in Montreal and some 6,000 lived in Toronto. Over half of the men were employed in construction, manufacturing, and service occupations. One-third of women were employed in service occupations, and another third were employed in managerial, clerical, or professional occupations.
IRCA's Effect on Canadian Policy
A change in U.S. immigration policy forced the Canadian government to adjust its own immigration policies reciprocally, demonstrating the impact that policy changes in one state can have on its neighbors. In 1986, the U.S. Congress passed the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), which created a series of measures to restrict the number of undocumented workers in the country, among them an expanded border patrol, tougher status verification criteria, and penalties on employers who knowingly hired undocumented workers.
As a result, Canada experienced a dramatic rise in the number of petitions for asylum as immigrants of many different countries left the United States and traveled northward in search of work and safe haven. In just one year, the Canadian consulate in Los Angeles saw a 500 percent increase in the number of Central Americans seeking assistance to come to Canada. Others asked for asylum at border points or entered illegally.
From December 1986 to February 1987, 10,000 refugees, most of them Central Americans, entered Canada, encouraged in part by the Spanish-language press, immigration lawyers, and sanctuary workers in the United States who alerted them to Canada's more generous policies. Church, Salvation Army, and Red Cross shelters on both sides of the border — Montana/Alberta, North Dakota/Manitoba, New York/Ontario-Quebec — hosted thousands of refugees awaiting their hearings.
The increased number of asylum seekers focused attention on the limitations of Canada's asylum determination process. The 1976 Immigration Act had created a bureaucratically cumbersome process under the Refugee Status Advisory Committee (RSAC) and the Immigration Appeals Board (IAB). These were adequate in the 1970s when inland applications stood at only 200 to 400 per year.
But the architects of the Immigration Act never envisioned that one day thousands of people would ask for asylum at border checkpoints at Windsor, Niagara Falls, or Lacolle. By the end of the 1980s, Canada had a backlog of 121,000 asylum cases.
Over the next few years, a series of bills were introduced into parliament to reform the immigration and refugee bureaucracy, exert better control of the border, and discourage "frivolous claims." While Central American refugees were not the specific targets of these bills, the so-called "border rush" of the late 1980s was a one of a series of high-profile incidents that contributed to the intolerance towards immigration.
Public opinion polls demonstrated a growing opposition to Canada's more generous policies even though yearly immigrants consistently numbered less than one percent of the total population. Bill C-55, passed in 1988, established a new tribunal, the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB), to streamline the processing of asylum claims, eliminate the backlog, and facilitate deportation.
Bill C-84 introduced new "detention and deterrence" measures, among them tougher criminal penalties on those who "smuggled" or aided the undocumented. In 1993, the passage of Bill C-86 established tougher criteria for asylum, resettlement, and detention, including an expanded list of criteria by which an applicant might be determined inadmissible.
Some of the bills' more restrictive measures were mediated or eliminated in part due to pressure from immigration and refugee advocates who lobbied and threatened lawsuits in order to keep the determination system fair and accessible. These advocates — affiliated with church groups, charitable and professional organizations, universities, labor groups, and other NGOs — staged rallies, demonstrations, letter-writing campaigns, and various forms of civil disobedience to remind the state of its humanitarian and international obligations. Although a minority viewpoint, they were influential in countering the anti-immigrant backlash.
Many of these advocates were actively involved in assisting the Central American refugees and in protesting U.S. militarization of the region. Through articles, editorials, and testimonies, they documented the abuses of war and helped keep attention focused on Central America.
Central American Migration Post-1996
After the elections and peace settlements of the 1990s, Central America's refugees ceased to occupy a prominent role in Canadian public discourse. It is unclear how many Central Americans living in Canada actually returned to their homelands after the peace accords were signed.
Based on anthropological studies that have examined links between immigrant communities in North America and the homeland, it is probable that those who legalized their status in Canada have maintained a transnational existence. This means they have likely invested in a variety of capital in both old and new homelands and blurred the borders in spite of state policies to reinforce them.
Migration from Central America continued after civil war ended in 1996 but for different reasons. From 1996 to 2001, Central Americans emigrated to escape ongoing criminal and political violence, as well as natural disasters that disrupted the economy and exacerbated the poverty. Migration from Honduras and Nicaragua to North America increased as a result of Hurricane Mitch (1998), and from El Salvador after the earthquakes of 2001.
The 2001 Canadian Census showed 39,200 Salvadoran immigrants and nonpermanent residents; 14,095 Guatemalans; and 9,535 Nicaraguans (see Table 2). Like many immigrants, the majority were concentrated in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Table 2. Central American Population in Canada by Country of Birth and Status, 2001
These numbers were small compared to U.S. figures. By 2004, Salvadoran officials estimated that nearly one-fourth of all Salvadorans lived in the United States alone, and sent close to US$2 billion in remittances each year.
Central Americans who now wish to enter Canada legally generally do so as landed immigrants rather than as refugees or "protected persons." However, since Canadian legislation favors immigrants with certain skills and work experiences, and who can speak English or French, this excludes many Central Americans.
Those who legally immigrate tend to enter as members of the "family class," which reunites Canadian residents with their family members. Adoption is another means by which Central Americans — in this case, children — have become permanent residents.
Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, it is much more difficult to immigrate or receive asylum in North America. The United States, Mexico, and Canada have all revamped their immigration bureaucracies, increased security personnel at airports and border checkpoints, and enacted new — and highly controversial — detention and deportation procedures in order to discourage terrorists from establishing a foothold in their societies. Unfortunately, immigrants and refugees have become casualties of these new policies.
As a result of all these new measures, the number of overall refugee claims in Canada fell from a record high of 44,063 in 2001 to less than half that number in 2003. Immigration numbers also failed to reach government targets.
Central American petitions for both asylum and landed status have been affected. Theoretically, Central Americans are still able to receive refugee or protected status if they are able to prove a credible risk to their lives. IRB regularly updates its country profiles to help evaluate such claims. However, it has become increasingly difficult to receive a favorable verdict through the refugee bureaucracy. Landed immigration is considered the only realistic means to enter the country legally but eligibility is also limited.
For those willing to take the risk, illegal immigration along the porous U.S.-Canada border is an option. News stories in the Mexican press report the many dangers that the transmigrantes face in reaching the United States and Canada, and hundreds die each year at the hands of gangs, corrupt police forces, and smugglers.
Some argue that a guest worker program in Canada, recently proposed by Mexican President Vicente Fox, would help Mexicans and Central Americans find employment and address some of the economic problems that propel them northward.
María Cristina García recently published Seeking Refuge: Central American Migration to Mexico, the United States, and Canada, published by University of California Press. Information on the book is available here.
Abell, Nazaré Albuquerque. "Safe Country provisions in Canada and in the European Union: A critical Assessment." International Migration Review 31 (Fall 1997): 569-590.
Adelman, Howard. A Survey of Postwar Refugee Intakes and Developments in Canadian Refugee Policy. Report prepared for the CEIC. Toronto: Centre for Refugee Studies, York University, August 1990.
Adelman, Howard, ed. Legitimate and Illegitimate Discrimination: New issues in Migration. Toronto: York Lanes Press, Ltd., 1995.
_____, ed. Refugee Policy: Canada and the United States. Toronto: York Lanes Press, Ltd., 1991.
Adelman, Howard, Borowski, Allan, Burstein, Meyer and Foster, Lois, eds. Immigration and Refugee Policy: Australia and Canada Compared. Vols. 1 & 2. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1994.
Adelman, Howard and Lanphier, C. Michael, eds. Refuge or Asylum: A Choice for Canada. Toronto: York Lanes Press, Ltd., 1990.
Badets, Jane and Chui, Tina W.L. Canada's Changing Immigrant Population. Ottawa: Statistics Canada and Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc., 1994.
Bai, David H. "Canadian Immigration Policy: Twentieth-Century Initiatives in Admission and Settlement." Migration World. Vol. 29, no. 3. 9-13.
Bissett, Joseph. "Canada's Refugee Determination System and the Effect of U.S. Immigration Law." Pp. 57-64 in Lydio F. Tomasi, ed. In Defense of the Alien, vol. x. Proceedings of the 1987 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy. New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1988.
_____."Canadian Policy on Refugees and Asylum Seekers," pp. 113-121 in Lydio F. Tomasi, ed. In Defense of the Alien. Vol ix. Proceedings of the 1986 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy. New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1987.
"Canada," World Refugee Report, 1989. Washington, DC: Bureau for Refugee Programs, Department of State, 1989, 108-110.
Canada Employment and Immigration Commission. Refugee Perspectives, 1984-1985. Hull: Refugee Affairs Division, Policy and Program Development Branch, 1985.
_____. New Directions: A Look at Canada's New Immigration Act and Regulations. Hull: Minister of Supply and Services, 1978.
"Canada Tightening Refugee Law, Takes Step Toward Turning Asylum Seekers Back to the United States," Refugee Reports, 13(September 30, 1992): 1-8.
"The Canadian Approach to the Settlement and Adaptation of Immigrants," ICMC Migration News. No.2 (1986): 14-25.
Canadian Council for Refugees. Best Settlement Practices: Settlement Services for Refugees and Immigrants in Canada. Montreal: Canadian Council for Refugees, February 1998.
_____. Interdicting Refugees. Montreal: Canadian Council for Refugees, May 1998.
Clark, Tom. "Human Rights Versus Immigration Controls: A Canadian Profile," World Refugee Survey: 1988 in Review. U.S. Committee for Refugees, 1988, 84-85.
Dirks, Gerald E. Controversy and Complexity: Canadian Immigration Policy During the 1980s. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1995.
Egan, Brian and Simmons, Alan. "Refugees and the Prospects for Peace and Development in Central America," Refuge 13 (March 1994): 4-10.
Facts and Figures: Immigration Overview, 1998. Ottawa: Citizenship Immigration Canada, 1999.
Fagen, Patricia Weiss. Refugees and Displaced Persons in Central America. Report of the Refugee Policy Group, Washington, DC:, March 1984.
Fagen, Patricia Weiss and Sergio Aguayo. Fleeing the Maelstrom: Central American Refugees. Occasional Paper No. 10, Central American and Caribbean Program, School of Advanced International Studies, The John Hopkins University, March 1986.
Frelick, Bill. The Back of the Hand: Bias and Restructionism towards Central American Asylum Seekers in North America. Issue Brief, U.S. Committee for Refugees, American Council for Nationalities Service, October 1988.
"Immigration Statistics," Ontario Ministry of Citizenship, vol. xi. Toronto: Ministry of Citizenship, 1993.
Jacob, André. "Adaptation of Salvadoran Refugees in Montreal," Migration World 20(January-February 1992): 21-24.
Kelley, Ninette and Michael Trebilcock, The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.
Knowles, Valeroe. Strangers at Our Gates: Canadian Immigration and Immigration Policy, 1540-1997. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1997.
LeoGrande, William M. Our Own Backyard: The United States in Central America, 1977-1992. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Lemco, Jonathan. Canada and the Crisis in Central America. New York: Praeger, 1991.
Loescher, Gil. Beyond Charity: International Cooperation and the Global Refugee Crisis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
______. The UNHCR and World Politics: A Perilous Path. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Loescher, Gil and Laila Monahan. Refugees and International Relations. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
MacDonald, Brian, ed. Canada, the Caribbean, and Central America. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies. Toronto: CISS, 1986.
MacFarlane, Peter. Northern Shadows: Canadians and Central America. Toronto: Between the Lines, 1989.
Matas, David (with Ilana Simon). Closing the Doors: The Failure of Refugee Protection. Toronto: Summerhill Press, 1989.
Meissner, Doris M., Robert D. Hormats, Antonio Garrigues Walker, and Shijuro Ogata. International Migration Challenges in a New Era: A Report to the Trilateral Commission, No. 44. New York, Paris, and Tokyo: Trilateral Commisssion, 1993.
Menjívar, Cecilia.Fragmented Ties: Salvadoran Immigrant Networks in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
North, Liisa and CAPA, eds. Between War and Peace in Central America: Choices for Canada. Toronto: Between the Lines, 1990.
Opoku-Dapaah, Edward. "Integration of landed Refugee Claimants in Canada: Toward an Explanatory Model," Refuge 13 (February 1994): 10-15.
______."Persons needing Protection: A Reflection on Canada's Role." Refuge 16 (June 1997): 29-31.
Passaris, Constantine. "The Role of Immigration in Canada's Demographic Outlook," International Migration 36 (1998): 93-101.
Ramírez, Bruno. "Canada and the United States: Perspectives on Migration and Continental History," Journal of American Ethnic History 20 (Spring 2001): 50-70.
Renaud, Viviane and Rosalinda Costa. " Immigrants in Quebec," Canadian Social Trends Catalogue 11-008E, Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Summer 1995.
Statistics Canada. "Ethnic Origin (232), Sex (3) and Single and Multiple Responses (3) for Population, for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2001 Census - 20% Sample Data - (2001 Census)". www.statcan.com.
Statistics Canada. Selected Places of Birth (85) for the Immigrant Population, for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas1 and Census Agglomerations, 1996 and 2001 Censuses - 20% Sample Data (2001 Census). www.statcan.com.
Stobo, Gerald. H. "The Canadian Refugee Determination System." Texas International Law Journal 29(Summer 1994): 383-426.
Tienhaara, Nancy. Canadian Views on Immigration and Population: An Analysis of Post-War Gallup Polls. Ottawa, 1974.
Tulchinsky, Gerald, ed. Immigration in Canada: Historical Perspectives. Toronto: Copp Clark Longman, Ltd., 1994.
Williams, John R., ed. Canadian Churches and Social Justice. Toronto: Anglican Book Centre and James Lorimer & Company, 1984.