A sharp rise in removals of unauthorized immigrants has taken place in the United States since 1990—rising from approximately 30,000 to nearly 400,000 annually today. The groundwork for this level of removals, as described in the research below, occurred over many years, with increased funding for additional manpower and detention capacity, expanded use of administrative (versus judicial) orders to effect removals, and an increase in the types of violations for which noncitizens can be removed.
This report argues that U.S. Customs and Immigration Enforcement’s National Fugitive Operations Program is not operating in accordance with its legislative purpose of improving national security by apprehending dangerous individuals with existing removal orders.
This report assesses the performance of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) over the course of the agency’s first six years, examines the effectiveness of the three core immigration agencies within DHS—U.S Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Immigrations and Customs Enforcement, and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.
This report closely examines the rapid growth of government appropriations directly targeted to immigration enforcement activities since the passage of the Immigration Control and Reform Act of 1986 (IRCA). Focusing primarily on data between 1985 and 2002, authors highlight trends in the overall immigration enforcement spending as well as in specific activities.
Although federal statute affords “the privilege of being represented,” to immigrants in removal proceedings, appointed counsel must be “at no expense to the government.” This report analyzes the “no expense” restriction and its effect on case outcomes. It then outlines a number of ways in which legal representation could be increased without significant federal funding.
This report examines the transfer of immigration functions from the former Immigration and Naturalization Service to the newly established Department of Homeland Security and offers an analysis of the Department’s progress in its first year of existence toward accomplishing the two purposes for which it was created: (1) to ensure that immigration regulation and control enhances national security; and (2) to improve the performance of both the service and enforcement sides of the immigration system by allocating their respective functions to separate units within DHS.
The events that unfolded in the U.S. on September 11 generated a renewed sense of urgency over border management. Bilateral Smart Border agreements were reached between the U.S. and Canada as well as the U.S. and Mexico in December 2001 and March 2002. This report tracks the implementation of these border accords and seeks to evaluate their effectiveness.
On November 25, 2002, Congress passed the Homeland Security Act, which effectively overhauled the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and called for a massive reorganization of immigration functions under the newly formed Department of Homeland Security (DHS).This report outlines key changes incurred, highlights points of concern and offers policy recommendations aimed at remedying some of these concerns.