With some countries narrowing their legal immigration channels, raising the bar for asylum, and increasing security measures at airports and land borders, migrants took unprecedented – and deadly – risks that captured headlines in 2005.
Schengen eliminated border controls between European countries, and established a common external border. MPI's Julia Gelatt explains the changes brought by Schengen and the effects Schengen has had on European border control, visa, and asylum policies.
Since the murder of Theo van Gogh in 2004, the debate on immigrant integration has become more intense. MPI Senior Policy Analyst Joanne van Selm provides the latest developments in this updated Country Profile.
Spain’s latest regularization program, unlike in the past, is part of a more comprehensive approach to combating illegal immigration and employment. Joaquín Arango of Complutense University of Madrid and Maia Jachimowicz outline the program and provide some preliminary results.
After its independence in 1993, the Czech Republic became home to tens of thousands of economic migrants. But as Dušan Drbohlav of Charles University reports, tighter restrictions and new laws in accordance with EU standards have not resolved the problems of illegal and transit migration.
For years, Germany has been concerned about losing its top minds to the United States. While highly skilled individuals are leaving for the U.S., most of the increase is accounted for by temporary migrants, as Claudia Diehl of the German Federal Institute for Population Research and MPI's David Dixon reveal.
In search of a better life, thousands of Nigerian women have signed emigration "pacts" with smugglers before going to Europe, where they are coerced into prostitution. Jørgen Carling of the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo explains.
Since the 1970s, Norway has become home to thousands of non-European immigrants and refugees. MPI's Betsy Cooper takes a detailed look at how the country seeks to control migration while keeping the door open to labor from an expanding Europe.
Over one million Roma, Europe’s largest ethnic minority, became EU citizens in May 2004 when eight former communist states joined the EU. But their second-class status persists, as Arno Tanner of the Finnish Directorate of Immigration explains.
Denise Efionayi, Josef Martin Niederberger and Philippe Wanner of the Swiss Forum for Migration and Population Studies explain how Switzerland, with one of the highest percentages of foreigners in Europe, is responding to a variety of migration challenges.
Since the mid-19th century, French immigration policy has had two aims: to meet the needs of the labor market by introducing migrant workers, and to compensate French demographic deficits by favoring the permanent installation of foreign families, while ensuring their integration. This country profile examines France's approach to migration.