E.g., 11/25/2020
E.g., 11/25/2020

Profile of the Unauthorized Population - County Data

Profile of the Unauthorized Population:
Bexar County, TX

DemographicsEstimate% of Total
Unauthorized Population 83,000 100%
Top Countries of Birth
Mexico 68,000 82%
Honduras 2,000 3%
- - -
- - -
- - -
Regions of Birth
Mexico and Central America 74,000 89%
Caribbean- -
South America- -
Europe/Canada/Oceania 2,000 2%
Asia 5,000 6%
Africa- -
Years of U.S. Residence
Less than 5 14,000 17%
5 to 9 15,000 18%
10 to 14 18,000 22%
15 to 19 22,000 27%
20 or more 13,000 16%
Age
Under 16 5,000 5%
16 to 24 14,000 16%
25 to 34 24,000 29%
35 to 44 22,000 27%
45 to 54 12,000 15%
55 and over 7,000 8%
Gender
Female 39,000 47%
FamilyEstimate% of Total
Parental Status
Population ages 15 and older 79,000 100%
Reside with at least one U.S.-citizen child under 18 26,000 33%
Reside with noncitizen children only under 18 5,000 7%
Reside with no children 48,000 60%
Marital Status
Population ages 15 and older 79,000 100%
Never married 25,000 32%
Married to a U.S. citizen 17,000 21%
Married to a legal permanent resident (LPR) 4,000 5%
Married to non-U.S. citizen/non-LPR 19,000 24%
Divorced, separated, widowed 14,000 18%
Education and LanguageEstimate% of Total
School Enrollment of Children and Youth
Population ages 3 to 17 5,000 100%
Enrolled 5,000 87%
Not enrolled- -
Population ages 3 to 12 3,000 100%
Enrolled 2,000 86%
Not enrolled- -
Population ages 13 to 17 3,000 100%
Enrolled 2,000 89%
Not enrolled- -
Population ages 18 to 24 12,000 100%
Enrolled 4,000 34%
Not enrolled 8,000 66%
Educational Attainment of Adults
Population ages 25 and older 65,000 100%
0-5 grade 7,000 11%
6-8 grade 10,000 15%
9-12 grade 13,000 20%
High school diploma or equivalent 16,000 24%
Some college or associate’s degree 9,000 14%
Bachelor’s, graduate, or professional degree 10,000 16%
English Proficiency
Population ages 5 and older 83,000 100%
Speak only English 4,000 5%
Speak English "very well" 21,000 25%
Speak English "well" 18,000 22%
Speak English "not well"/"not at all" 40,000 48%
Top 5 Languages Spoken at Home
Population ages 5 and older 83,000 100%
Spanish 73,000 88%
English 4,000 5%
-- -
-- -
-- -
WorkforceEstimate% of Total
Labor Force Participation
Civilian population ages 16 and older 79,000 100%
Employed 51,000 65%
Unemployed 3,000 4%
Not in the labor force 25,000 31%
Top Industries of Employment
Civilian employed population ages 16 and older 51,000 100%
Construction 16,000 32%
Accommodation and food services, arts, entertainment, and recreation 10,000 19%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste management services 6,000 13%
Other services (except public administration) 4,000 8%
Retail trade 3,000 7%
EconomicsEstimate% of Total
Family Income
Below 50% of the poverty level 8,000 10%
50-99% of the poverty level 14,000 17%
100-149% of the poverty level 16,000 19%
150-199% of the poverty level 12,000 15%
At or above 200% of the poverty level 33,000 40%
Access to Health Insurance
Uninsured 50,000 60%
Home Ownership*
Homeowner 32,000 38%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Source: Migration Policy Institute (MPI) analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2014-18 American Community Survey (ACS) pooled, and the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), drawing on a methodology developed in consultation with James Bachmeier of Temple University and Jennifer Van Hook of The Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute.

Note: For U.S., state, and county estimates of the unauthorized population potentially eligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, click here.

Data-related notes
* “Homeowners” are unauthorized immigrants residing in homes that are owned, not rented.

+ Includes the following Colorado counties: Adams, Broomfield, Clear Creek, Douglas, Elbert, Gilpin, and Jefferson, as well as portions of Arapahoe, Boulder, and Weld counties.

++ NECTAs refer to New England City and Town Areas, geographic entities defined by the U.S. Census Bureau for use as alternatives to counties in the six-state New England region.

  1. Estimate for China includes Hong Kong but excludes Taiwan; estimate for Korea includes South Korea and North Korea.
  2. “School Enrollment of Children and Youth” refers to unauthorized immigrants who reported attending school or college at any time in the three months prior to the survey.
  3. For languages, “Chinese” includes Mandarin, Cantonese, and other Chinese languages; “English” includes English, Jamaican Creole, Krio, Pidgin Krio, and other English-based Creole languages; “French” includes French, Patois, and Cajun; “Pacific Island languages” includes Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, Sebuano, Chamorro, Guamanian, Marshallese, Trukese, Tongan, and other Austronesian languages, but excludes Tagalog and Filipino, which are reported separately; “Portuguese” includes Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole; “Sub-Saharan African” includes Swahili or other Bantu languages, Mande, Fulani, Kru, and other unspecified African languages; “Tagalog” includes Tagalog and Filipino.
  4.  For industries, “Other services” are miscellaneous services, not including the following services listed separately: (1) professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste management services; (2) educational services; (3) health and social services; and (4) accommodation and food services, arts, entertainment, and recreation.
  5.  “-” estimates are zero, not applicable, or not displayed due to small sample size.
  6. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.

Methodology in Brief:

MPI’s method uses information from the SIPP to assign legal status to noncitizens in the ACS. In the SIPP, noncitizens report whether they currently have lawful permanent resident (LPR) status—i.e., a green card. Those without LPR status may be recent refugees, temporary visitors (e.g., international students or high-skilled H-1B workers), or unauthorized immigrants. Our method maps characteristics such as country of birth, year of U.S. entry, age, gender, and educational attainment between the two surveys, and those noncitizens in the ACS who have characteristics similar to those reporting LPR status in the SIPP are coded as LPRs in the ACS. The remaining noncitizens—who are similar in characteristics to those not reporting LPR status in the SIPP—are classified as either unauthorized or legal temporary migrants, depending on whether they meet the qualifications for H-1B and the other temporary visa classifications. Estimates of unauthorized immigrants are weighted to match control totals (benchmarks) for immigrants from a set of origin countries and world regions. These control totals are calculated by subtracting the number of legal immigrants from the total of all immigrants for each country and region that are captured in the ACS data. The number of legal immigrants is estimated by adding up all legal admissions from each country and region in every year—using Department of Homeland Security administrative data—and then reducing this number to account for deaths and emigration of legal immigrants. Finally, the unauthorized immigrant population estimates are adjusted upward slightly to account for the undercount of this population in the ACS.

MPI’s overall method was developed in consultation with James Bachmeier of Temple University and Jennifer Van Hook of The Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute. For more detail on the methods, see MPI, “MPI Methodology for Assigning Legal Status to Noncitizen Respondents in U.S. Census Bureau Survey Data.” The control totals were developed by Jennifer Van Hook. These estimates have the same sampling and coverage errors as any other survey-based estimates that rely on ACS and other Census Bureau data.