E.g., 08/23/2019
E.g., 08/23/2019

State Workforce Data - US

United States

Workforce
2017
2000
1990
Civilian Labor Force

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 42,497,774
% in the civilian labor force 66.0%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 28,048,531
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 4.5%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 26,773,894
% change: 2000-2017 66.6%
% change: 1990-2000 51.3%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 218,066,474
% in the civilian labor force 62.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 135,637,347
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 5.4%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 128,284,437
% change: 2000-2011 12.9%
% change: 1990-2000 8.4%
Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 28,550,949
% change: 2000-2011 60.4%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 17,248,288
% change: 1990-2000 6.8%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 16,073,543
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 188,643,139
% change: 2000-2011 63.8%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 120,430,421
% change: 1990-2000 5.6%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 113,643,105
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 18,020,791
% change: 2000-2011 63.9%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 11,521,794
% change: 1990-2000 7.8%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 10,623,071
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 173,367,617
% change: 2000-2011 64.4%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 111,713,941
% change: 1990-2000 6.1%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 104,846,279
   
   
Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Naturalized Citizens  
Population (16 and older) 21,461,619
% in the civilian labor force
64.9%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 13,928,591
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 3.7%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 13,405,950
Noncitizens  
Population (age 16 and older) 21,036,155
% in the civilian labor force
67.1%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 14,115,260
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force
5.2%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 13,367,944
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign-Born Workers by Period of Entry and Origin Foreign Born
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

26,697,200
% recent arrivals (i.e., arrived within the last 10 years)
23.9%
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

26,697,200
Born in Africa 5.4%
Born in Asia 30.0%
Born in Europe 9.7%
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 52.7%
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 1.6%
Born in Oceania 0.5%
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Occupations

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 26,773,894
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 32.4%
Service occupations 23.4%
Sales and office occupations 16.4%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 12.8%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 15.0%
% Foreign Born by Occupation  
All civilian workers 17.3%
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 14.6%
Service occupations 22.6%
Sales and office occupations 12.3%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 25.0%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 21.3%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 128,284,437
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 39.4%
Service occupations 16.7%
Sales and office occupations 24.3%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 8.0%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 11.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Industries

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 26,773,894
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 2.3%
Construction 9.6%
Manufacturing 11.1%
Wholesale trade 2.6%
Retail trade 9.1%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 5.8%
Information 1.6%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 5.5%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 13.2%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 19.4%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 11.3%
Other services (except public administration) 6.2%
Public administration 2.3%
% Foreign Born by Industry  
All civilian workers 17.3%
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 23.1%
Construction 25.0%
Manufacturing 19.0%
Wholesale trade 17.3%
Retail trade 14.1%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 18.6%
Information 13.7%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 14.4%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 19.7%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 14.5%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 20.1%
Other services (except public administration) 22.0%
Public administration 8.6%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 128,284,437
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 1.6%
Construction 6.0%
Manufacturing 9.9%
Wholesale trade 2.6%
Retail trade 11.6%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 5.3%
Information 2.1%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 6.8%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 11.2%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 23.9%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 9.4%
Other services (except public administration) 4.6%
Public administration 5.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Class of Worker

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) (%) 26,773,894
Private wage and salary workers 83.6%
Government workers 8.5%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 7.7%
Unpaid family workers 0.2%
U.S. Born
Class of Worker (civilian workers age 16 and older) (%) 128,284,437
Private wage and salary workers 79.7%
Government workers 14.6%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 5.6%
Unpaid family workers 0.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 25 and older)
 
 
Labor Force Participation by Language Spoken at Home Number
Total Population (native and foreign born) Age 25 and older 221,250,083
In labor force 141,645,327
Not in labor force 79,604,756
Speak only English 174,015,536
In labor force 109,629,252
Not in labor force 64,386,284
Speak Spanish 27,486,147
In labor force 19,062,258
Not in labor force 8,423,889
Speak other Indo-European languages 8,791,576
In labor force 5,660,831
Not in labor force 3,130,745
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 8,544,295
In labor force 5,660,438
Not in labor force 2,883,857
Speak other languages 2,412,529
In labor force 1,632,548
Not in labor force 779,981
%
Total Population (native and foreign born) age 25 and older 100%
  In labor force 64.0%
Not in labor force 36.0%
Speak only English 100%
  In labor force 63.0%
Not in labor force 37.0%
Speak Spanish 100%
  In labor force 69.4%
Not in labor force 30.6%
Speak other Indo-European languages 100%
  In labor force 64.4%
Not in labor force 35.6%
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 100%
  In labor force 66.2%
Not in labor force 33.8%
Speak other languages 100%
  In labor force 67.7%
Not in labor force 32.3%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Workers' Education and English Proficiency

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 25 and older) 24,968,400
Low-educated workers (i.e., those without a high school diploma) 5,719,100
% low educated of all workers
22.9%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 8,723,100
% high educated of all workers
34.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 11,420,700
% LEP among all workers
45.7%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers (age 25 and older) 110,064,500
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 5,277,000
% low educated of all workers
4.8%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 42,377,800
% high educated of all workers
38.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 1,353,200
% LEP among all workers
1.2%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Brain Waste

Note: The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Foreign Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*

Note: Estimates are based on Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's data. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS).

 
Total civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+ 8,974,000
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
2,022,000

% of civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+

22.5%
U.S. Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*  
Total civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+ 43,322,800
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
7,526,300

% of all civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+

17.4%
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2017 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.
  • The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “Civilian Labor Force,” “Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status,” “Occupations,” “Industries,” and “Class of Worker”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.
  • For “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry,” “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth,” and “Workers' Education and English Proficiency (age 25 and older)”: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other workforce data due to different ACS data sources. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are based on Migration Policy Institute (MPI) analysis of the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 ACS data. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are based on MPI analysis of the 2017 ACS.
  • Brain waste estimates are based on Migration Policy Institute (MPI) analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's ACS data. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are based on MPI analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 ACS data. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are based on MPI analysis of the 2017 ACS.