E.g., 10/19/2021
E.g., 10/19/2021

State Workforce Data - NJ

 
New Jersey
United States
New York
Workforce
2019
2019
2019
Civilian Labor Force

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 1,977,177
% in the civilian labor force 69.5%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 1,374,138
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 3.7%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 1,322,366
% change: 2000-2019 63.0%
% change: 1990-2000 44.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 5,191,255
% in the civilian labor force 64.4%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,343,168
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 5.1%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 3,174,333
% change: 2000-2011 1.2%
% change: 1990-2000 -4.8%
Civilian Labor Force

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 42,883,963
% in the civilian labor force 66.7%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 28,603,603
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 3.6%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 27,554,490
% change: 2000-2019 71.4%
% change: 1990-2000 51.3%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 220,650,198
% in the civilian labor force 62.4%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 137,685,724
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 4.7%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 131,204,304
% change: 2000-2011 15.5%
% change: 1990-2000 8.4%
Civilian Labor Force

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 4,193,639
% in the civilian labor force 65.0%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 2,725,865
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 4.0%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 2,616,889
% change: 2000-2019 33.5%
% change: 1990-2000 29.3%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 11,701,922
% in the civilian labor force 62.6%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 7,325,403
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 4.6%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 6,994,140
% change: 2000-2011 8.7%
% change: 1990-2000 -5.8%
Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Naturalized Citizens  
Population (16 and older) 1,190,169
% in the civilian labor force
68.4%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 814,076
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 3.1%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 788,774
Noncitizens  
Population (age 16 and older) 787,008
% in the civilian labor force
71.1%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 559,563
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force
4.6%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 533,592
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Naturalized Citizens  
Population (16 and older) 22,706,364
% in the civilian labor force
64.9%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 14,736,430
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 3.1%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 14,285,017
Noncitizens  
Population (age 16 and older) 20,177,599
% in the civilian labor force
68.7%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 13,862,011
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force
4.3%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 13,269,473
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Naturalized Citizens  
Population (16 and older) 2,544,384
% in the civilian labor force
62.8%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 1,597,873
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 3.1%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 1,548,019
Noncitizens  
Population (age 16 and older) 1,649,255
% in the civilian labor force
68.4%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 1,128,090
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force
5.2%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 1,068,870
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign-Born Workers by Period of Entry and Origin Foreign Born
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

1,331,100
% recent arrivals (i.e., arrived within the last 10 years)
22.7%
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

1,331,100
Born in Africa 6.0%
Born in Asia 31.1%
Born in Europe 12.5%
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 49.3%
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 1.0%
Born in Oceania 0.2%
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign-Born Workers by Period of Entry and Origin Foreign Born
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

27,488,800
% recent arrivals (i.e., arrived within the last 10 years)
23.9%
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

27,488,800
Born in Africa 5.8%
Born in Asia 30.3%
Born in Europe 9.3%
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 52.3%
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 1.5%
Born in Oceania 0.6%
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign-Born Workers by Period of Entry and Origin Foreign Born
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

2,626,800
% recent arrivals (i.e., arrived within the last 10 years)
23.1%
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

2,626,800
Born in Africa 5.0%
Born in Asia 28.9%
Born in Europe 14.0%
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 50.3%
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 1.3%
Born in Oceania 0.5%
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Occupations

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 1,322,366
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 40.5%
Service occupations 19.2%
Sales and office occupations 14.6%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 9.2%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 16.5%
% Foreign Born by Occupation  
All civilian workers 29.4%
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 26.5%
Service occupations 35.6%
Sales and office occupations 21.0%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 37.1%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 42.2%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 3,174,333
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 46.7%
Service occupations 14.5%
Sales and office occupations 22.9%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 6.5%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 9.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Occupations

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 27,554,490
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 34.6%
Service occupations 22.8%
Sales and office occupations 14.6%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 12.5%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 15.5%
% Foreign Born by Occupation  
All civilian workers 17.4%
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 15.1%
Service occupations 22.4%
Sales and office occupations 12.4%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 24.5%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 20.3%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 131,204,304
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 41.0%
Service occupations 16.6%
Sales and office occupations 21.6%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 8.1%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 12.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Occupations

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 2,616,889
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 34.8%
Service occupations 28.3%
Sales and office occupations 15.6%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 8.6%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 12.7%
% Foreign Born by Occupation  
All civilian workers 27.2%
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 22.0%
Service occupations 38.1%
Sales and office occupations 21.5%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 32.8%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 35.3%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 6,994,140
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 46.2%
Service occupations 17.2%
Sales and office occupations 21.3%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 6.6%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 8.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Industries

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 1,322,366
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 0.4%
Construction 8.0%
Manufacturing 10.4%
Wholesale trade 3.3%
Retail trade 8.7%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 8.4%
Information 2.0%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 8.7%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 15.0%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 20.1%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 8.0%
Other services (except public administration) 4.8%
Public administration 2.0%
% Foreign Born by Industry  
All civilian workers 29.4%
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 29.4%
Construction 37.3%
Manufacturing 38.2%
Wholesale trade 30.7%
Retail trade 25.0%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 37.2%
Information 25.0%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 29.9%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 32.3%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 24.4%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 29.7%
Other services (except public administration) 33.9%
Public administration 14.0%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 3,174,333
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 0.4%
Construction 5.6%
Manufacturing 7.0%
Wholesale trade 3.1%
Retail trade 10.9%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 5.9%
Information 2.5%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 8.5%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 13.1%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 26.0%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 7.9%
Other services (except public administration) 3.9%
Public administration 5.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Industries

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 27,554,490
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 2.3%
Construction 9.9%
Manufacturing 10.8%
Wholesale trade 2.5%
Retail trade 8.8%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 6.1%
Information 1.5%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 5.5%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 13.7%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 20.0%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 10.8%
Other services (except public administration) 5.8%
Public administration 2.4%
% Foreign Born by Industry  
All civilian workers 17.4%
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 23.2%
Construction 24.8%
Manufacturing 18.8%
Wholesale trade 17.4%
Retail trade 14.1%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 18.9%
Information 14.2%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 14.7%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 20.2%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 14.9%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 19.4%
Other services (except public administration) 20.9%
Public administration 9.3%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 131,204,304
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 1.6%
Construction 6.3%
Manufacturing 9.8%
Wholesale trade 2.5%
Retail trade 11.3%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 5.5%
Information 1.9%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 6.7%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 11.4%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 24.0%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 9.4%
Other services (except public administration) 4.6%
Public administration 4.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Industries

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 2,616,889
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 0.3%
Construction 7.7%
Manufacturing 5.2%
Wholesale trade 2.3%
Retail trade 8.7%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 7.7%
Information 2.0%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 7.1%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 11.2%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 28.0%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 11.2%
Other services (except public administration) 5.9%
Public administration 2.8%
% Foreign Born by Industry  
All civilian workers 27.2%
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 13.8%
Construction 34.8%
Manufacturing 24.8%
Wholesale trade 27.2%
Retail trade 24.6%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 36.6%
Information 19.0%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 24.7%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 25.1%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 26.5%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 32.3%
Other services (except public administration) 36.1%
Public administration 16.5%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 6,994,140
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 0.7%
Construction 5.4%
Manufacturing 5.9%
Wholesale trade 2.3%
Retail trade 10.0%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 5.0%
Information 3.2%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 8.1%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 12.5%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 29.0%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 8.8%
Other services (except public administration) 3.9%
Public administration 5.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Class of Worker

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) (%) 1,322,366
Private wage and salary workers 86.5%
Government workers 7.7%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 5.5%
Unpaid family workers 0.2%
U.S. Born
Class of Worker (civilian workers age 16 and older) (%) 3,174,333
Private wage and salary workers 79.7%
Government workers 16.0%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 4.1%
Unpaid family workers 0.1%
Class of Worker

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) (%) 27,554,490
Private wage and salary workers 82.9%
Government workers 9.1%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 7.7%
Unpaid family workers 0.3%
U.S. Born
Class of Worker (civilian workers age 16 and older) (%) 131,204,304
Private wage and salary workers 79.4%
Government workers 15.0%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 5.4%
Unpaid family workers 0.2%
Class of Worker

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) (%) 2,616,889
Private wage and salary workers 82.1%
Government workers 10.8%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 6.9%
Unpaid family workers 0.2%
U.S. Born
Class of Worker (civilian workers age 16 and older) (%) 6,994,140
Private wage and salary workers 77.5%
Government workers 17.6%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 4.8%
Unpaid family workers 0.2%
 
Population (age 25 and older)
Population (age 25 and older)
Population (age 25 and older)
Labor Force Participation by Language Spoken at Home Number
Total Population (native and foreign born) Age 25 and older 6,191,229
In labor force 4,180,892
Not in labor force 2,010,337
Speak only English 4,174,112
In labor force 2,757,892
Not in labor force 1,416,220
Speak Spanish 997,637
In labor force 720,722
Not in labor force 276,915
Speak other Indo-European languages 581,369
In labor force 393,662
Not in labor force 187,707
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 324,811
In labor force 226,804
Not in labor force 98,007
Speak other languages 113,300
In labor force 81,812
Not in labor force 31,488
%
Total Population (native and foreign born) age 25 and older 100%
  In labor force 67.5%
Not in labor force 32.5%
Speak only English 100%
  In labor force 66.1%
Not in labor force 33.9%
Speak Spanish 100%
  In labor force 72.2%
Not in labor force 27.8%
Speak other Indo-European languages 100%
  In labor force 67.7%
Not in labor force 32.3%
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 100%
  In labor force 69.8%
Not in labor force 30.2%
Speak other languages 100%
  In labor force 72.2%
Not in labor force 27.8%
Labor Force Participation by Language Spoken at Home Number
Total Population (native and foreign born) Age 25 and older 224,898,568
In labor force 144,357,783
Not in labor force 80,540,785
Speak only English 176,313,658
In labor force 111,095,393
Not in labor force 65,218,265
Speak Spanish 28,355,276
In labor force 19,781,966
Not in labor force 8,573,310
Speak other Indo-European languages 8,925,328
In labor force 5,852,535
Not in labor force 3,072,793
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 8,732,094
In labor force 5,858,457
Not in labor force 2,873,637
Speak other languages 2,572,212
In labor force 1,769,432
Not in labor force 802,780
%
Total Population (native and foreign born) age 25 and older 100%
  In labor force 64.2%
Not in labor force 35.8%
Speak only English 100%
  In labor force 63.0%
Not in labor force 37.0%
Speak Spanish 100%
  In labor force 69.8%
Not in labor force 30.2%
Speak other Indo-European languages 100%
  In labor force 65.6%
Not in labor force 34.4%
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 100%
  In labor force 67.1%
Not in labor force 32.9%
Speak other languages 100%
  In labor force 68.8%
Not in labor force 31.2%
Labor Force Participation by Language Spoken at Home Number
Total Population (native and foreign born) Age 25 and older 13,664,734
In labor force 8,888,435
Not in labor force 4,776,299
Speak only English 9,457,982
In labor force 6,108,802
Not in labor force 3,349,180
Speak Spanish 1,994,966
In labor force 1,344,147
Not in labor force 650,819
Speak other Indo-European languages 1,218,405
In labor force 776,806
Not in labor force 441,599
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 767,476
In labor force 500,353
Not in labor force 267,123
Speak other languages 225,905
In labor force 158,327
Not in labor force 67,578
%
Total Population (native and foreign born) age 25 and older 100%
  In labor force 65.0%
Not in labor force 35.0%
Speak only English 100%
  In labor force 64.6%
Not in labor force 35.4%
Speak Spanish 100%
  In labor force 67.4%
Not in labor force 32.6%
Speak other Indo-European languages 100%
  In labor force 63.8%
Not in labor force 36.2%
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 100%
  In labor force 65.2%
Not in labor force 34.8%
Speak other languages 100%
  In labor force 70.1%
Not in labor force 29.9%
Workers' Education and English Proficiency

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 25 and older) 1,261,900
Low-educated workers (i.e., those without a high school diploma) 176,000
% low educated of all workers
13.9%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 558,900
% high educated of all workers
44.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 504,100
% LEP among all workers
39.9%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers (age 25 and older) 2,753,900
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 80,200
% low educated of all workers
2.9%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 1,350,600
% high educated of all workers
49.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 41,400
% LEP among all workers
1.5%
Workers' Education and English Proficiency

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 25 and older) 25,781,600
Low-educated workers (i.e., those without a high school diploma) 5,701,600
% low educated of all workers
22.1%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 9,415,200
% high educated of all workers
36.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 11,416,900
% LEP among all workers
44.3%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers (age 25 and older) 112,621,100
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 5,248,900
% low educated of all workers
4.7%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 44,559,000
% high educated of all workers
39.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 1,427,700
% LEP among all workers
1.3%
Workers' Education and English Proficiency

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 25 and older) 2,488,300
Low-educated workers (i.e., those without a high school diploma) 434,400
% low educated of all workers
17.5%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 932,900
% high educated of all workers
37.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 1,039,100
% LEP among all workers
41.8%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers (age 25 and older) 6,072,700
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 236,100
% low educated of all workers
3.9%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 2,958,400
% high educated of all workers
48.7%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 103,400
% LEP among all workers
1.7%
Brain Waste

Note: The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Foreign Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*

Note: Estimates are based on Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's data. Data for Montana, West Virginia, and Wyoming are not available for the foreign-born college-educated adult workers due to the small sample size. Data for Alaska, Maine, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Vermont are from the pooled 2015-2019 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Total civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+ 571,600
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
109,000

% of civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+

19.1%
U.S. Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*  
Total civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+ 1,382,900
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
207,800

% of all civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+

15.0%
Brain Waste

Note: The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Foreign Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*

Note: Estimates are based on Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's data. Data for Montana, West Virginia, and Wyoming are not available for the foreign-born college-educated adult workers due to the small sample size. Data for Alaska, Maine, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Vermont are from the pooled 2015-2019 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Total civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+ 9,639,400
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
1,991,700

% of civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+

20.7%
U.S. Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*  
Total civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+ 45,465,800
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
7,186,300

% of all civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+

15.8%
Brain Waste

Note: The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Foreign Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*

Note: Estimates are based on Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's data. Data for Montana, West Virginia, and Wyoming are not available for the foreign-born college-educated adult workers due to the small sample size. Data for Alaska, Maine, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Vermont are from the pooled 2015-2019 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Total civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+ 955,800
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
198,400

% of civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+

20.8%
U.S. Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*  
Total civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+ 3,022,200
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
459,600

% of all civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+

15.2%

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.
  • The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “Civilian Labor Force,” “Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status,” “Occupations,” “Industries,” and “Class of Worker”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.
  • For “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry,” “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth,” and “Workers' Education and English Proficiency (age 25 and older)”: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other workforce data due to different ACS data sources. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are based on Migration Policy Institute (MPI) analysis of the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 ACS data. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are based on MPI analysis of the 2019 ACS.
  • Brain waste estimates are based on Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's ACS data. Data for Montana, West Virginia, and Wyoming are not available for the foreign-born college-educated adult workers due to the small sample size. Data for Alaska, Maine, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Vermont are from the pooled 2015-2019 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.