E.g., 09/16/2021
E.g., 09/16/2021
State Language Data - VT
 

Vermont

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 28,897
Speak only English 38.5%
Speak English "very well" 30.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 30.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 82.1%
% change: 1990-2000 35.6%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 15,975
Speak only English 42.2%
Speak English "very well" 39.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 18.3%
Noncitizens 13,055
Speak only English 32.2%
Speak English "very well" 35.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 32.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 566,071
Speak only English 97.3%
Speak English ""very well"" 2.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -68.6%
% change: 1990-2000 2.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 22,729
Speak only English 44.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 33.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 552,113
Speak only English 96.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 17,243
Speak only English 46.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 499,924
Speak only English 95.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 84,538
Speak only English 80,877
Speak language other than English 3,661
Speak English "very well"
2,660
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
1,001
Speak Spanish 789
Speak English "very well"
754
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
35
Ages 18-64 385,229
Speak only English 361,706
Speak language other than English 23,523
Speak English "very well"
15,811
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
7,712
Speak Spanish 5,867
Speak English "very well"
4,666
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
1,201
65 and Older 125,201
Speak only English 119,433
Speak language other than English 5,768
Speak English "very well"
4,198
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
1,570
Speak Spanish 583
Speak English "very well"
583
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
0
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 95.7%
Speak language other than English 4.3%
Speak English "very well" 3.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.2%
Speak Spanish 0.9%
Speak English "very well" 0.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.0%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 93.9%
Speak language other than English 6.1%
Speak English "very well" 4.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.0%
Speak Spanish 1.5%
Speak English "very well" 1.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.3%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 95.4%
Speak language other than English 4.6%
Speak English "very well" 3.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.3%
Speak Spanish 0.5%
Speak English "very well" 0.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 594,745
Speak only English 560,055
Speak language other than English 34,690
Spanish 6,771
Speak English "very well" 5,520
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,251
French (Including Cajun) 8,385
Speak English "very well" 6,894
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,491
Haitian 85
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 85
Italian 865
Speak English "very well" 783
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 82
Portuguese 227
Speak English "very well" 200
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27
German 2,303
Speak English "very well" 2,171
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 132
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 457
Speak English "very well" 417
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40
Russian 858
Speak English "very well" 578
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 280
Polish 639
Speak English "very well" 533
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 106
Other Slavic Languages 1,914
Speak English "very well" 1,398
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 516
Armenian 124
Speak English "very well" 104
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 113
Speak English "very well" 95
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 18
Gujarati 154
Speak English "very well" 116
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 38
Hindi 188
Speak English "very well" 137
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51
Urdu 91
Speak English "very well" 73
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 18
Punjabi 235
Speak English "very well" 79
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 156
Bengali 138
Speak English "very well" 138
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 1,929
Speak English "very well" 808
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,121
Other Indo-European Languages 1,120
Speak English "very well" 963
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 157
Telugu 97
Speak English "very well" 97
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Tamil 14
Speak English "very well" 14
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 44
Speak English "very well" 35
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 2,439
Speak English "very well" 1,363
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,076
Japanese 414
Speak English "very well" 278
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 136
Korean 462
Speak English "very well" 347
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 115
Hmong N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 545
Speak English "very well" 301
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 244
Khmer 60
Speak English "very well" 23
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 236
Speak English "very well" 158
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 78
Other Languages of Asia 488
Speak English "very well" 176
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 312
Tagalog (including Filipino) 507
Speak English "very well" 413
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 94
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 97
Speak English "very well" 71
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26
Arabic 735
Speak English "very well" 301
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 434
Hebrew 215
Speak English "very well" 179
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 36
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 553
Speak English "very well" 237
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 316
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 117
Speak English "very well" 96
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 478
Speak English "very well" 175
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 303
Native Languages of North America 109
Speak English "very well" 109
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other and Unspecified Languages 484
Speak English "very well" 414
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 70
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 94.2%
Field 308 5.8%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 81.5%
Field 310 18.5%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 82.2%
Field 315 17.8%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 N
Field 316 100.0%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 90.5%
Field 319 9.5%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 88.1%
Field 322 11.9%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 94.3%
Field 325 5.7%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 91.2%
Field 328 8.8%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 67.4%
Field 331 32.6%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 83.4%
Field 334 16.6%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 73.0%
Field 337 27.0%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 83.9%
Field 340 16.1%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 84.1%
Field 343 15.9%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 75.3%
Field 346 24.7%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 72.9%
Field 349 27.1%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 80.2%
Field 352 19.8%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 33.6%
Field 355 66.4%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 100.0%
Field 358 N
Field 361 100%
Field 361 41.9%
Field 361 58.1%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 86.0%
Field 364 14.0%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 100.0%
Field 367 N
Field 370 100%
Field 370 100.0%
Field 370 N
Field 373 100%
Field 373 79.5%
Field 373 20.5%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 55.9%
Field 376 44.1%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 67.1%
Field 379 32.9%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 75.1%
Field 382 24.9%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 55.2%
Field 388 44.8%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 38.3%
Field 391 61.7%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 66.9%
Field 394 33.1%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 36.1%
Field 397 63.9%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 81.5%
Field 400 18.5%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 73.2%
Field 403 26.8%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 41.0%
Field 406 59.0%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 83.3%
Field 409 16.7%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 42.9%
Field 412 57.1%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 82.1%
Field 415 17.9%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 36.6%
Field 418 63.4%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 100.0%
Field 421 N
Field 424 100%
Field 424 85.5%
Field 424 14.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 23,625
Less than high school diploma 21.2%
High school diploma or GED 19.5%
Some college or associate's degree 18.2%
Bachelor's degree 22.0%
Graduate or professional degree 19.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 16.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.6%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 24.5%
% change: 1990-2000 -17.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 35.2%
% change: 1990-2000 72.6%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 13,893
Less than high school diploma 12.9%
High school diploma or GED 18.6%
Some college or associate's degree 22.9%
Bachelor's degree 22.2%
Graduate or professional degree 23.2%
Noncitizens (%) 9,176
Less than high school diploma 17.7%
High school diploma or GED 16.6%
Some college or associate's degree 17.5%
Bachelor's degree 23.1%
Graduate or professional degree 25%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 421,933
Less than high school diploma 6.1%
High school diploma or GED 29.5%
Some college or associate's degree 25.8%
Bachelor's degree 22.7%
Graduate or professional degree 15.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -48.4%
% change: 1990-2000 -19.0%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 44.9%
% change: 1990-2000 37.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 18,849
Less than high school diploma 21.3%
High school diploma or GED 18.7%
Some college or associate's degree 21.8%
Bachelor's degree 18.3%
Graduate or professional degree 19.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 7.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 6.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 383,269
Less than high school diploma 13.1%
High school diploma or GED 33.3%
Some college or associate's degree 24.4%
Bachelor's degree 18.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 15,321
Less than high school diploma 31.8%
High school diploma or GED 23.7%
Some college or associate's degree 17.3%
Bachelor's degree 16.1%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 7.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 336,904
Less than high school diploma 18.3%
High school diploma or GED 34.8%
Some college or associate's degree 22.5%
Bachelor's degree 15.3%
Graduate or professional degree 9.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.