E.g., 07/27/2021
E.g., 07/27/2021
State Language Data - US
 

United States

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 44,634,617
Speak only English 16.4%
Speak English "very well" 37.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 46.4%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 32.3%
% change: 1990-2000 71.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 23,134,974
Speak only English 20.9%
Speak English "very well" 42.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 36.5%
Noncitizens 21,499,643
Speak only English 11.6%
Speak English "very well" 31.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.1%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 264,200,071
Speak only English 88.5%
Speak English ""very well"" 9.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -16.2%
% change: 1990-2000 17.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 30,709,064
Speak only English 17.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 231,666,088
Speak only English 90.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 6.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 19,424,613
Speak only English 20.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 47.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 210,481,543
Speak only English 92.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 5.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 53,562,950
Speak only English 41,478,983
Speak language other than English 12,083,967
Speak English "very well"
9,824,141
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,259,826
Speak Spanish 8,584,628
Speak English "very well"
7,039,830
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
1,544,798
Ages 18-64 201,197,710
Speak only English 153,739,862
Speak language other than English 47,457,848
Speak English "very well"
28,962,359
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
18,495,489
Speak Spanish 29,127,154
Speak English "very well"
16,930,353
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
12,196,801
65 and Older 54,074,028
Speak only English 45,813,498
Speak language other than English 8,260,530
Speak English "very well"
3,551,678
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
4,708,852
Speak Spanish 4,045,609
Speak English "very well"
1,655,901
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,389,708
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 77.4%
Speak language other than English 22.6%
Speak English "very well" 18.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.2%
Speak Spanish 16.0%
Speak English "very well" 13.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.9%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 76.4%
Speak language other than English 23.6%
Speak English "very well" 14.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.2%
Speak Spanish 14.5%
Speak English "very well" 8.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.1%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 84.7%
Speak language other than English 15.3%
Speak English "very well" 6.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.7%
Speak Spanish 7.5%
Speak English "very well" 3.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 308,834,688
Speak only English 241,032,343
Speak language other than English 67,802,345
Spanish 41,757,391
Speak English "very well" 25,626,084
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,131,307
French (Including Cajun) 1,171,775
Speak English "very well" 931,300
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 240,475
Haitian 924,817
Speak English "very well" 600,810
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 324,007
Italian 539,546
Speak English "very well" 406,590
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 132,956
Portuguese 845,801
Speak English "very well" 539,939
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 305,862
German 895,309
Speak English "very well" 760,644
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 134,665
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 560,216
Speak English "very well" 398,341
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 161,875
Russian 941,454
Speak English "very well" 553,625
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 387,829
Polish 510,430
Speak English "very well" 325,707
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 184,723
Other Slavic Languages 565,108
Speak English "very well" 369,267
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 195,841
Armenian 236,949
Speak English "very well" 141,100
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 95,849
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 457,102
Speak English "very well" 295,751
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 161,351
Gujarati 455,292
Speak English "very well" 310,845
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 144,447
Hindi 892,596
Speak English "very well" 734,980
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 157,616
Urdu 519,883
Speak English "very well" 380,828
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 139,055
Punjabi 322,446
Speak English "very well" 198,181
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 124,265
Bengali 369,115
Speak English "very well" 217,499
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 151,616
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 417,486
Speak English "very well" 261,001
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 156,485
Other Indo-European Languages 840,306
Speak English "very well" 617,809
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 222,497
Telugu 419,768
Speak English "very well" 339,995
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 79,773
Tamil 293,907
Speak English "very well" 247,681
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 46,226
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 266,309
Speak English "very well" 213,512
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 52,797
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 3,494,544
Speak English "very well" 1,675,984
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,818,560
Japanese 455,003
Speak English "very well" 280,023
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 174,980
Korean 1,075,247
Speak English "very well" 527,025
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 548,222
Hmong 230,270
Speak English "very well" 145,493
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 84,777
Vietnamese 1,570,526
Speak English "very well" 676,644
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 893,882
Khmer 193,070
Speak English "very well" 100,071
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 92,999
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 315,481
Speak English "very well" 154,644
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 160,837
Other Languages of Asia 409,682
Speak English "very well" 203,310
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 206,372
Tagalog (including Filipino) 1,763,585
Speak English "very well" 1,241,929
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 521,656
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 485,925
Speak English "very well" 323,911
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 162,014
Arabic 1,260,437
Speak English "very well" 818,936
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 441,501
Hebrew 210,824
Speak English "very well" 186,236
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 24,588
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 589,612
Speak English "very well" 357,062
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 232,550
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 588,574
Speak English "very well" 465,314
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 123,260
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 299,156
Speak English "very well" 199,520
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 99,636
Native Languages of North America 368,849
Speak English "very well" 300,816
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 68,033
Other and Unspecified Languages 288,554
Speak English "very well" 209,771
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 78,783
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 78.0%
Field 308 22.0%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 61.4%
Field 310 38.6%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 79.5%
Field 315 20.5%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 65.0%
Field 316 35.0%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 75.4%
Field 319 24.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 63.8%
Field 322 36.2%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 85.0%
Field 325 15.0%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 71.1%
Field 328 28.9%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 58.8%
Field 331 41.2%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 63.8%
Field 334 36.2%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 65.3%
Field 337 34.7%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 59.5%
Field 340 40.5%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 64.7%
Field 343 35.3%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 68.3%
Field 346 31.7%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 82.3%
Field 349 17.7%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 73.3%
Field 352 26.7%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 61.5%
Field 355 38.5%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 58.9%
Field 358 41.1%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 62.5%
Field 361 37.5%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 73.5%
Field 364 26.5%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 81.0%
Field 367 19.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 84.3%
Field 370 15.7%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 80.2%
Field 373 19.8%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 48.0%
Field 376 52.0%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 61.5%
Field 379 38.5%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 49.0%
Field 382 51.0%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 63.2%
Field 385 36.8%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 43.1%
Field 388 56.9%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 51.8%
Field 391 48.2%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 49.0%
Field 394 51.0%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 49.6%
Field 397 50.4%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 70.4%
Field 400 29.6%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 66.7%
Field 403 33.3%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 65.0%
Field 406 35.0%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 88.3%
Field 409 11.7%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 60.6%
Field 412 39.4%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 79.1%
Field 415 20.9%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 66.7%
Field 418 33.3%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 81.6%
Field 421 18.4%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 72.7%
Field 424 27.3%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 39,553,892
Less than high school diploma 26.3%
High school diploma or GED 22.3%
Some college or associate's degree 18.7%
Bachelor's degree 18.5%
Graduate or professional degree 14.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 40.6%
Bachelor's degree or higher 17.4%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 11.9%
% change: 1990-2000 47.9%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 120.5%
% change: 1990-2000 88.9%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 21,623,497
Less than high school diploma 19%
High school diploma or GED 21.4%
Some college or associate's degree 22.5%
Bachelor's degree 21.5%
Graduate or professional degree 15.6%
Noncitizens (%) 17,930,395
Less than high school diploma 35.2%
High school diploma or GED 23.4%
Some college or associate's degree 14%
Bachelor's degree 15%
Graduate or professional degree 12.4%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 185,344,676
Less than high school diploma 8.2%
High school diploma or GED 27.9%
Some college or associate's degree 30.7%
Bachelor's degree 20.7%
Graduate or professional degree 12.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -42.4%
% change: 1990-2000 -19.8%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 59.6%
% change: 1990-2000 32.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 24,363,109
Less than high school diploma 38.2%
High school diploma or GED 19.2%
Some college or associate's degree 18.5%
Bachelor's degree 13.7%
Graduate or professional degree 10.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 26.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 13.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 157,819,105
Less than high school diploma 16.7%
High school diploma or GED 30.1%
Some college or associate's degree 28.7%
Bachelor's degree 15.8%
Graduate or professional degree 8.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 15,267,154
Less than high school diploma 41.2%
High school diploma or GED 19.7%
Some college or associate's degree 18.8%
Bachelor's degree 11.5%
Graduate or professional degree 8.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 16.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 9.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 143,244,094
Less than high school diploma 23.0%
High school diploma or GED 31.1%
Some college or associate's degree 25.5%
Bachelor's degree 13.3%
Graduate or professional degree 7.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.