E.g., 10/31/2020
E.g., 10/31/2020

State Language Data - TX

Texas

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,892,054
Speak only English 10.2%
Speak English "very well" 34.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 56.3%
% change: 1990-2000 98.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 1,852,852
Speak only English 14.7%
Speak English "very well" 45.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40%
Noncitizens 3,039,202
Speak only English 7.5%
Speak English "very well" 28.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 63.9%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 21,799,010
Speak only English 76.3%
Speak English ""very well"" 19.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 4.0%
% change: 1990-2000 6.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,858,396
Speak only English 10.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 60.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 16,383,122
Speak only English 78.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 15.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,491,959
Speak only English 11.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 30.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 14,080,586
Speak only English 81.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 12.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 5,388,703
Speak only English 3,472,850
Speak language other than English 1,915,853
Speak English "very well"
1,452,717
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
463,136
Speak Spanish 1,676,871
Speak English "very well"
1,262,054
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
414,817
Ages 18-64 17,702,762
Speak only English 11,026,281
Speak language other than English 6,676,481
Speak English "very well"
3,986,999
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,689,482
Speak Spanish 5,401,084
Speak English "very well"
3,120,402
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,280,682
65 and Older 3,599,599
Speak only English 2,632,488
Speak language other than English 967,111
Speak English "very well"
445,786
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
521,325
Speak Spanish 759,031
Speak English "very well"
348,228
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
410,803
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 64.4%
Speak language other than English 35.6%
Speak English "very well" 27.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.6%
Speak Spanish 31.1%
Speak English "very well" 23.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.7%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 62.3%
Speak language other than English 37.7%
Speak English "very well" 22.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 15.2%
Speak Spanish 30.5%
Speak English "very well" 17.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 12.9%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 73.1%
Speak language other than English 26.9%
Speak English "very well" 12.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 14.5%
Speak Spanish 21.1%
Speak English "very well" 9.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 11.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 26,691,064
Speak only English 17,131,619
Speak language other than English 9,559,445
Spanish 7,836,986
Speak English "very well" 4,730,684
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,106,302
French (Including Cajun) 77,739
Speak English "very well" 59,307
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 18,432
Haitian 10,230
Speak English "very well" 9,232
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 998
Italian 9,624
Speak English "very well" 8,150
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,474
Portuguese 28,641
Speak English "very well" 23,278
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,363
German 61,427
Speak English "very well" 52,213
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,214
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 11,311
Speak English "very well" 10,858
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 453
Russian 29,731
Speak English "very well" 22,106
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,625
Polish 7,463
Speak English "very well" 6,345
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,118
Other Slavic Languages 17,255
Speak English "very well" 13,825
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,430
Armenian 1,732
Speak English "very well" 1,290
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 442
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 37,880
Speak English "very well" 24,314
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,566
Gujarati 35,887
Speak English "very well" 25,307
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,580
Hindi 85,698
Speak English "very well" 71,112
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,586
Urdu 74,706
Speak English "very well" 52,473
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22,233
Punjabi 10,876
Speak English "very well" 6,221
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,655
Bengali 25,825
Speak English "very well" 17,029
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,796
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 46,801
Speak English "very well" 32,375
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,426
Other Indo-European Languages 34,790
Speak English "very well" 23,643
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,147
Telugu 60,117
Speak English "very well" 49,886
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,231
Tamil 40,348
Speak English "very well" 34,229
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,119
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 57,384
Speak English "very well" 43,082
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,302
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 184,910
Speak English "very well" 100,598
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 84,312
Japanese 20,362
Speak English "very well" 12,489
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,873
Korean 65,317
Speak English "very well" 32,294
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33,023
Hmong 1,618
Speak English "very well" 801
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 817
Vietnamese 218,401
Speak English "very well" 94,629
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 123,772
Khmer 7,786
Speak English "very well" 3,367
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,419
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 25,418
Speak English "very well" 14,003
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,415
Other Languages of Asia 37,221
Speak English "very well" 14,294
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22,927
Tagalog (including Filipino) 91,232
Speak English "very well" 71,488
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,744
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 22,091
Speak English "very well" 15,047
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,044
Arabic 104,398
Speak English "very well" 71,335
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33,063
Hebrew 6,398
Speak English "very well" 5,863
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 535
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 34,348
Speak English "very well" 22,440
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,908
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 80,183
Speak English "very well" 68,502
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,681
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 37,717
Speak English "very well" 26,673
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,044
Native Languages of North America 5,863
Speak English "very well" 4,989
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 874
Other and Unspecified Languages 13,731
Speak English "very well" 9,731
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,000
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 64.2%
Field 308 35.8%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 60.4%
Field 310 39.6%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 76.3%
Field 315 23.7%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 90.2%
Field 316 9.8%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 84.7%
Field 319 15.3%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 81.3%
Field 322 18.7%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 85.0%
Field 325 15.0%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 96.0%
Field 328 4.0%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 74.4%
Field 331 25.6%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 85.0%
Field 334 15.0%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 80.1%
Field 337 19.9%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 74.5%
Field 340 25.5%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 64.2%
Field 343 35.8%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 70.5%
Field 346 29.5%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 83.0%
Field 349 17.0%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 70.2%
Field 352 29.8%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 57.2%
Field 355 42.8%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 65.9%
Field 358 34.1%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 69.2%
Field 361 30.8%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 68.0%
Field 364 32.0%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 83.0%
Field 367 17.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 84.8%
Field 370 15.2%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 75.1%
Field 373 24.9%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 54.4%
Field 376 45.6%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 61.3%
Field 379 38.7%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 49.4%
Field 382 50.6%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 49.5%
Field 385 50.5%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 43.3%
Field 388 56.7%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 43.2%
Field 391 56.8%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 55.1%
Field 394 44.9%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 38.4%
Field 397 61.6%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 78.4%
Field 400 21.6%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 68.1%
Field 403 31.9%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 68.3%
Field 406 31.7%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 91.6%
Field 409 8.4%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 65.3%
Field 412 34.7%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 85.4%
Field 415 14.6%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 70.7%
Field 418 29.3%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 85.1%
Field 421 14.9%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 70.9%
Field 424 29.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,269,943
Less than high school diploma 37.5%
High school diploma or GED 20.5%
Some college or associate's degree 15.7%
Bachelor's degree 15.1%
Graduate or professional degree 11.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 54.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 20.1%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 37.2%
% change: 1990-2000 85.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 203.5%
% change: 1990-2000 119.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 1,732,596
Less than high school diploma 24.9%
High school diploma or GED 19.4%
Some college or associate's degree 21.1%
Bachelor's degree 19.7%
Graduate or professional degree 14.9%
Noncitizens (%) 2,537,347
Less than high school diploma 46.1%
High school diploma or GED 21.2%
Some college or associate's degree 12.1%
Bachelor's degree 11.9%
Graduate or professional degree 8.8%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 14,207,154
Less than high school diploma 9.6%
High school diploma or GED 26.4%
Some college or associate's degree 32.5%
Bachelor's degree 21.0%
Graduate or professional degree 10.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -29.9%
% change: 1990-2000 -13.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 72.5%
% change: 1990-2000 35.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,162,235
Less than high school diploma 54.0%
High school diploma or GED 14.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.0%
Bachelor's degree 9.7%
Graduate or professional degree 7.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 12.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 10,620,896
Less than high school diploma 18.3%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 30.4%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 7.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,112,155
Less than high school diploma 56.6%
High school diploma or GED 13.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.2%
Bachelor's degree 8.6%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 22.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 9,186,460
Less than high school diploma 24.3%
High school diploma or GED 27.1%
Some college or associate's degree 27.6%
Bachelor's degree 14.4%
Graduate or professional degree 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.