E.g., 10/17/2021
E.g., 10/17/2021
State Language Data - TX
 

Texas

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,910,837
Speak only English 10.5%
Speak English "very well" 35.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 53.9%
% change: 1990-2000 98.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 1,956,091
Speak only English 14.5%
Speak English "very well" 46.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39%
Noncitizens 2,954,746
Speak only English 7.8%
Speak English "very well" 28.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 63.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 22,103,289
Speak only English 76.4%
Speak English ""very well"" 19.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -0.7%
% change: 1990-2000 6.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,858,396
Speak only English 10.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 60.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 16,383,122
Speak only English 78.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 15.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,491,959
Speak only English 11.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 30.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 14,080,586
Speak only English 81.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 12.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 5,414,876
Speak only English 3,517,674
Speak language other than English 1,897,202
Speak English "very well"
1,469,051
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
428,151
Speak Spanish 1,654,300
Speak English "very well"
1,274,551
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
379,749
Ages 18-64 17,860,523
Speak only English 11,172,639
Speak language other than English 6,687,884
Speak English "very well"
4,049,129
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,638,755
Speak Spanish 5,413,392
Speak English "very well"
3,200,575
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,212,817
65 and Older 3,738,727
Speak only English 2,720,147
Speak language other than English 1,018,580
Speak English "very well"
496,567
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
522,013
Speak Spanish 807,161
Speak English "very well"
394,566
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
412,595
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 65.0%
Speak language other than English 35.0%
Speak English "very well" 27.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.9%
Speak Spanish 30.6%
Speak English "very well" 23.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.0%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 62.6%
Speak language other than English 37.4%
Speak English "very well" 22.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 14.8%
Speak Spanish 30.3%
Speak English "very well" 17.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 12.4%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 72.8%
Speak language other than English 27.2%
Speak English "very well" 13.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 14.0%
Speak Spanish 21.6%
Speak English "very well" 10.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 11.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 27,014,126
Speak only English 17,410,460
Speak language other than English 9,603,666
Spanish 7,874,853
Speak English "very well" 4,869,692
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,005,161
French (Including Cajun) 76,884
Speak English "very well" 60,296
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,588
Haitian 10,203
Speak English "very well" 9,002
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,201
Italian 13,205
Speak English "very well" 11,211
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,994
Portuguese 34,428
Speak English "very well" 28,616
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,812
German 64,932
Speak English "very well" 52,106
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,826
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 10,180
Speak English "very well" 9,202
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 978
Russian 26,915
Speak English "very well" 18,172
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,743
Polish 8,091
Speak English "very well" 6,649
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,442
Other Slavic Languages 18,053
Speak English "very well" 12,913
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,140
Armenian 1,334
Speak English "very well" 1,076
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 258
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 35,076
Speak English "very well" 22,310
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,766
Gujarati 43,694
Speak English "very well" 32,279
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,415
Hindi 100,192
Speak English "very well" 81,159
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,033
Urdu 84,611
Speak English "very well" 65,119
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,492
Punjabi 8,644
Speak English "very well" 5,971
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,673
Bengali 22,093
Speak English "very well" 14,571
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,522
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 54,808
Speak English "very well" 35,344
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,464
Other Indo-European Languages 32,073
Speak English "very well" 24,187
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,886
Telugu 52,868
Speak English "very well" 41,925
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,943
Tamil 31,704
Speak English "very well" 28,374
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,330
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 49,673
Speak English "very well" 36,674
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,999
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 182,175
Speak English "very well" 101,637
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 80,538
Japanese 19,833
Speak English "very well" 13,871
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,962
Korean 63,774
Speak English "very well" 33,227
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 30,547
Hmong 553
Speak English "very well" 553
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 226,370
Speak English "very well" 93,700
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 132,670
Khmer 10,552
Speak English "very well" 4,470
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,082
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 19,361
Speak English "very well" 9,741
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,620
Other Languages of Asia 30,981
Speak English "very well" 14,688
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,293
Tagalog (including Filipino) 93,071
Speak English "very well" 70,413
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22,658
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 21,604
Speak English "very well" 16,071
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,533
Arabic 96,229
Speak English "very well" 58,447
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37,782
Hebrew 5,596
Speak English "very well" 5,061
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 535
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 39,824
Speak English "very well" 24,246
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,578
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 90,702
Speak English "very well" 70,018
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,684
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 32,713
Speak English "very well" 19,981
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,732
Native Languages of North America 2,779
Speak English "very well" 2,310
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 469
Other and Unspecified Languages 13,035
Speak English "very well" 9,465
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,570
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 64.4%
Field 308 35.6%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 61.8%
Field 310 38.2%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 78.4%
Field 315 21.6%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 88.2%
Field 316 11.8%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 84.9%
Field 319 15.1%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 83.1%
Field 322 16.9%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 80.2%
Field 325 19.8%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 90.4%
Field 328 9.6%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 67.5%
Field 331 32.5%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 82.2%
Field 334 17.8%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 71.5%
Field 337 28.5%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 80.7%
Field 340 19.3%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 63.6%
Field 343 36.4%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 73.9%
Field 346 26.1%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 81.0%
Field 349 19.0%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 77.0%
Field 352 23.0%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 69.1%
Field 355 30.9%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 66.0%
Field 358 34.0%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 64.5%
Field 361 35.5%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 75.4%
Field 364 24.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 79.3%
Field 367 20.7%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 89.5%
Field 370 10.5%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 73.8%
Field 373 26.2%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 55.8%
Field 376 44.2%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 69.9%
Field 379 30.1%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 52.1%
Field 382 47.9%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 41.4%
Field 388 58.6%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 42.4%
Field 391 57.6%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 50.3%
Field 394 49.7%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 47.4%
Field 397 52.6%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 75.7%
Field 400 24.3%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 74.4%
Field 403 25.6%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 60.7%
Field 406 39.3%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 90.4%
Field 409 9.6%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 60.9%
Field 412 39.1%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 77.2%
Field 415 22.8%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 61.1%
Field 418 38.9%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 83.1%
Field 421 16.9%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 72.6%
Field 424 27.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,310,823
Less than high school diploma 35.7%
High school diploma or GED 21.2%
Some college or associate's degree 15.8%
Bachelor's degree 15.7%
Graduate or professional degree 11.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 53.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 20.3%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 32.0%
% change: 1990-2000 85.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 217.4%
% change: 1990-2000 119.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 1,833,447
Less than high school diploma 23.4%
High school diploma or GED 20%
Some college or associate's degree 21.2%
Bachelor's degree 20.5%
Graduate or professional degree 14.9%
Noncitizens (%) 2,477,376
Less than high school diploma 44.9%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 11.7%
Bachelor's degree 12.1%
Graduate or professional degree 9.1%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 14,461,727
Less than high school diploma 9.3%
High school diploma or GED 26.4%
Some college or associate's degree 32.5%
Bachelor's degree 21.3%
Graduate or professional degree 10.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -31.0%
% change: 1990-2000 -13.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 77.3%
% change: 1990-2000 35.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,162,235
Less than high school diploma 54.0%
High school diploma or GED 14.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.0%
Bachelor's degree 9.7%
Graduate or professional degree 7.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 12.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 10,620,896
Less than high school diploma 18.3%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 30.4%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 7.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,112,155
Less than high school diploma 56.6%
High school diploma or GED 13.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.2%
Bachelor's degree 8.6%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 22.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 9,186,460
Less than high school diploma 24.3%
High school diploma or GED 27.1%
Some college or associate's degree 27.6%
Bachelor's degree 14.4%
Graduate or professional degree 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.