E.g., 04/07/2020
E.g., 04/07/2020

State Language Data - PA

Pennsylvania

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 913,682
Speak only English 22.0%
Speak English "very well" 38.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 87.9%
% change: 1990-2000 62.3%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 495,208
Speak only English 26.6%
Speak English "very well" 40.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33.1%
Noncitizens 418,474
Speak only English 16.6%
Speak English "very well" 36.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 46.7%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 11,192,962
Speak only English 93.4%
Speak English ""very well"" 5.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -4.2%
% change: 1990-2000 4.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 501,106
Speak only English 25.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 36.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 38.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 11,054,432
Speak only English 94.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 362,500
Speak only English 32.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 32.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 10,699,620
Speak only English 94.8%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,947,201
Speak only English 1,689,994
Speak language other than English 257,207
Speak English "very well"
200,680
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
56,527
Speak Spanish 125,119
Speak English "very well"
97,778
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
27,341
Ages 18-64 7,827,074
Speak only English 6,803,767
Speak language other than English 1,023,307
Speak English "very well"
635,726
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
387,581
Speak Spanish 461,551
Speak English "very well"
268,837
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
192,714
65 and Older 2,332,369
Speak only English 2,166,732
Speak language other than English 165,637
Speak English "very well"
80,737
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
84,900
Speak Spanish 46,672
Speak English "very well"
18,326
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
28,346
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 86.8%
Speak language other than English 13.2%
Speak English "very well" 10.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.9%
Speak Spanish 6.4%
Speak English "very well" 5.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.4%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 86.9%
Speak language other than English 13.1%
Speak English "very well" 8.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.0%
Speak Spanish 5.9%
Speak English "very well" 3.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.5%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 92.9%
Speak language other than English 7.1%
Speak English "very well" 3.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.6%
Speak Spanish 2.0%
Speak English "very well" 0.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.2%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 12,106,644
Speak only English 10,660,493
Speak language other than English 1,446,151
Spanish 633,342
Speak English "very well" 384,941
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 248,401
French (Including Cajun) 35,229
Speak English "very well" 26,015
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,214
Haitian 18,210
Speak English "very well" 11,038
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,172
Italian 33,077
Speak English "very well" 25,435
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,642
Portuguese 16,596
Speak English "very well" 8,938
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,658
German 43,349
Speak English "very well" 34,610
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,739
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 81,834
Speak English "very well" 62,355
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,479
Russian 39,733
Speak English "very well" 21,609
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 18,124
Polish 18,421
Speak English "very well" 13,775
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,646
Other Slavic Languages 24,689
Speak English "very well" 15,923
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,766
Armenian 1,587
Speak English "very well" 1,260
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 327
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 7,342
Speak English "very well" 6,114
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,228
Gujarati 27,038
Speak English "very well" 18,154
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,884
Hindi 24,264
Speak English "very well" 19,229
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,035
Urdu 10,712
Speak English "very well" 8,390
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,322
Punjabi 6,429
Speak English "very well" 5,379
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,050
Bengali 15,331
Speak English "very well" 7,424
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,907
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 20,467
Speak English "very well" 10,618
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,849
Other Indo-European Languages 36,705
Speak English "very well" 25,544
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,161
Telugu 15,739
Speak English "very well" 13,302
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,437
Tamil 11,065
Speak English "very well" 9,325
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,740
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 11,666
Speak English "very well" 7,082
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,584
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 95,753
Speak English "very well" 46,751
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49,002
Japanese 5,613
Speak English "very well" 3,916
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,697
Korean 27,974
Speak English "very well" 15,364
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,610
Hmong 194
Speak English "very well" 194
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 36,389
Speak English "very well" 16,097
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,292
Khmer 12,658
Speak English "very well" 4,991
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,667
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 5,659
Speak English "very well" 2,950
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,709
Other Languages of Asia 13,197
Speak English "very well" 7,596
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,601
Tagalog (including Filipino) 14,951
Speak English "very well" 11,193
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,758
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 8,949
Speak English "very well" 5,117
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,832
Arabic 39,249
Speak English "very well" 26,692
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,557
Hebrew 6,169
Speak English "very well" 5,199
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 970
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 7,844
Speak English "very well" 3,954
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,890
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 19,507
Speak English "very well" 15,959
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,548
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 6,764
Speak English "very well" 4,869
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,895
Native Languages of North America 1,631
Speak English "very well" 1,180
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 451
Other and Unspecified Languages 10,825
Speak English "very well" 8,661
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,164
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 88.1%
Field 308 11.9%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 60.8%
Field 310 39.2%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 73.8%
Field 315 26.2%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 60.6%
Field 316 39.4%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 76.9%
Field 319 23.1%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 53.9%
Field 322 46.1%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 79.8%
Field 325 20.2%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 76.2%
Field 328 23.8%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 54.4%
Field 331 45.6%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 74.8%
Field 334 25.2%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 64.5%
Field 337 35.5%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 79.4%
Field 340 20.6%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 83.3%
Field 343 16.7%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 67.1%
Field 346 32.9%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 79.2%
Field 349 20.8%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 78.3%
Field 352 21.7%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 83.7%
Field 355 16.3%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 48.4%
Field 358 51.6%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 51.9%
Field 361 48.1%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 69.6%
Field 364 30.4%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 84.5%
Field 367 15.5%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 84.3%
Field 370 15.7%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 60.7%
Field 373 39.3%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 48.8%
Field 376 51.2%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 69.8%
Field 379 30.2%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 54.9%
Field 382 45.1%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 44.2%
Field 388 55.8%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 39.4%
Field 391 60.6%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 52.1%
Field 394 47.9%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 57.6%
Field 397 42.4%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 74.9%
Field 400 25.1%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 57.2%
Field 403 42.8%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 68.0%
Field 406 32.0%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 84.3%
Field 409 15.7%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 50.4%
Field 412 49.6%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 81.8%
Field 415 18.2%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 72.0%
Field 418 28.0%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 72.3%
Field 421 27.7%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 80.0%
Field 424 20.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 777,099
Less than high school diploma 19.6%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 17.5%
Bachelor's degree 20.7%
Graduate or professional degree 20.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 18.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 11.0%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 43.4%
% change: 1990-2000 -7.3%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 127.9%
% change: 1990-2000 78.4%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 448,521
Less than high school diploma 16.7%
High school diploma or GED 21.8%
Some college or associate's degree 20%
Bachelor's degree 21.6%
Graduate or professional degree 19.8%
Noncitizens (%) 328,578
Less than high school diploma 23.4%
High school diploma or GED 22.8%
Some college or associate's degree 14.1%
Bachelor's degree 19.3%
Graduate or professional degree 20.3%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 8,217,528
Less than high school diploma 8.0%
High school diploma or GED 35.8%
Some college or associate's degree 25.2%
Bachelor's degree 19.0%
Graduate or professional degree 12.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -52.7%
% change: 1990-2000 -25.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 49.6%
% change: 1990-2000 27.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 407,550
Less than high school diploma 26.0%
High school diploma or GED 23.0%
Some college or associate's degree 17.0%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 17.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 7.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 7.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 7,851,701
Less than high school diploma 17.8%
High school diploma or GED 38.8%
Some college or associate's degree 21.8%
Bachelor's degree 13.8%
Graduate or professional degree 7.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 308,481
Less than high school diploma 37.1%
High school diploma or GED 23.1%
Some college or associate's degree 14.6%
Bachelor's degree 11.6%
Graduate or professional degree 13.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 7,547,328
Less than high school diploma 24.8%
High school diploma or GED 39.3%
Some college or associate's degree 18.2%
Bachelor's degree 11.3%
Graduate or professional degree 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.