E.g., 06/30/2022
E.g., 06/30/2022
State Language Data - OH
 

Ohio

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 553,414
Speak only English 21.3%
Speak English "very well" 41.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 75.1%
% change: 1990-2000 55.6%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 291,927
Speak only English 27.3%
Speak English "very well" 43.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 28.9%
Noncitizens 261,487
Speak only English 14.6%
Speak English "very well" 38%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 47.4%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 10,449,014
Speak only English 96.3%
Speak English ""very well"" 2.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -24.5%
% change: 1990-2000 4.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 333,271
Speak only English 25.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 38.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 35.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 10,266,697
Speak only English 96.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 253,569
Speak only English 33.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 36.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 30.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 9,794,684
Speak only English 96.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,888,175
Speak only English 1,736,285
Speak language other than English 151,890
Speak English "very well"
113,439
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
38,451
Speak Spanish 56,701
Speak English "very well"
45,656
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
11,045
Ages 18-64 7,070,705
Speak only English 6,496,809
Speak language other than English 573,896
Speak English "very well"
363,259
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
210,637
Speak Spanish 187,203
Speak English "very well"
111,320
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
75,883
65 and Older 2,043,548
Speak only English 1,944,064
Speak language other than English 99,484
Speak English "very well"
53,083
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
46,401
Speak Spanish 21,857
Speak English "very well"
11,983
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
9,874
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 92.0%
Speak language other than English 8.0%
Speak English "very well" 6.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.0%
Speak Spanish 3.0%
Speak English "very well" 2.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.6%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 91.9%
Speak language other than English 8.1%
Speak English "very well" 5.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.0%
Speak Spanish 2.6%
Speak English "very well" 1.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.1%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 95.1%
Speak language other than English 4.9%
Speak English "very well" 2.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.3%
Speak Spanish 1.1%
Speak English "very well" 0.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 11,002,428
Speak only English 10,177,158
Speak language other than English 825,270
Spanish 265,761
Speak English "very well" 168,959
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 96,802
French (Including Cajun) 27,884
Speak English "very well" 20,110
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,774
Haitian 1,437
Speak English "very well" 1,117
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 320
Italian 12,663
Speak English "very well" 9,154
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,509
Portuguese 4,683
Speak English "very well" 3,891
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 792
German 42,942
Speak English "very well" 33,823
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,119
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 62,701
Speak English "very well" 43,020
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,681
Russian 14,265
Speak English "very well" 7,844
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,421
Polish 5,382
Speak English "very well" 3,719
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,663
Other Slavic Languages 23,846
Speak English "very well" 13,451
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,395
Armenian 575
Speak English "very well" 351
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 224
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 3,557
Speak English "very well" 1,860
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,697
Gujarati 10,314
Speak English "very well" 7,512
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,802
Hindi 18,964
Speak English "very well" 14,441
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,523
Urdu 6,809
Speak English "very well" 5,161
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,648
Punjabi 3,034
Speak English "very well" 1,631
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,403
Bengali 4,562
Speak English "very well" 2,805
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,757
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 32,446
Speak English "very well" 13,305
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,141
Other Indo-European Languages 21,514
Speak English "very well" 15,250
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,264
Telugu 17,908
Speak English "very well" 13,580
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,328
Tamil 6,313
Speak English "very well" 5,837
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 476
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 3,417
Speak English "very well" 3,111
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 306
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 46,828
Speak English "very well" 24,112
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22,716
Japanese 8,191
Speak English "very well" 4,408
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,783
Korean 10,358
Speak English "very well" 5,594
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,764
Hmong 536
Speak English "very well" 486
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50
Vietnamese 14,223
Speak English "very well" 6,065
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,158
Khmer 3,378
Speak English "very well" 1,439
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,939
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 4,078
Speak English "very well" 2,107
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,971
Other Languages of Asia 10,752
Speak English "very well" 4,326
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,426
Tagalog (including Filipino) 14,153
Speak English "very well" 11,120
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,033
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 2,561
Speak English "very well" 2,205
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 356
Arabic 41,582
Speak English "very well" 27,398
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,184
Hebrew 2,648
Speak English "very well" 2,414
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 234
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 28,994
Speak English "very well" 16,992
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,002
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 23,988
Speak English "very well" 18,379
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,609
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 13,389
Speak English "very well" 6,601
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,788
Native Languages of North America 485
Speak English "very well" 479
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6
Other and Unspecified Languages 8,149
Speak English "very well" 5,724
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,425
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 92.5%
Field 308 7.5%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 63.6%
Field 310 36.4%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 72.1%
Field 315 27.9%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 77.7%
Field 316 22.3%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 72.3%
Field 319 27.7%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 83.1%
Field 322 16.9%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 78.8%
Field 325 21.2%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 68.6%
Field 328 31.4%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 55.0%
Field 331 45.0%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 69.1%
Field 334 30.9%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 56.4%
Field 337 43.6%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 61.0%
Field 340 39.0%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 52.3%
Field 343 47.7%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 72.8%
Field 346 27.2%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 76.1%
Field 349 23.9%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 75.8%
Field 352 24.2%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 53.8%
Field 355 46.2%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 61.5%
Field 358 38.5%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 41.0%
Field 361 59.0%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 70.9%
Field 364 29.1%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 75.8%
Field 367 24.2%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 92.5%
Field 370 7.5%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 91.0%
Field 373 9.0%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 51.5%
Field 376 48.5%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 53.8%
Field 379 46.2%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 54.0%
Field 382 46.0%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 90.7%
Field 385 9.3%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 42.6%
Field 388 57.4%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 42.6%
Field 391 57.4%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 51.7%
Field 394 48.3%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 40.2%
Field 397 59.8%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 78.6%
Field 400 21.4%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 86.1%
Field 403 13.9%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 65.9%
Field 406 34.1%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 91.2%
Field 409 8.8%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 58.6%
Field 412 41.4%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 76.6%
Field 415 23.4%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 49.3%
Field 418 50.7%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 98.8%
Field 421 1.2%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 70.2%
Field 424 29.8%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 456,782
Less than high school diploma 18.2%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 15.7%
Bachelor's degree 21.8%
Graduate or professional degree 22.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 11.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.5%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 28.6%
% change: 1990-2000 -11.8%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 92.2%
% change: 1990-2000 69.9%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 259,668
Less than high school diploma 14.6%
High school diploma or GED 22%
Some college or associate's degree 18.6%
Bachelor's degree 22.4%
Graduate or professional degree 22.5%
Noncitizens (%) 197,114
Less than high school diploma 23%
High school diploma or GED 22.4%
Some college or associate's degree 11.9%
Bachelor's degree 20.9%
Graduate or professional degree 21.7%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 7,593,023
Less than high school diploma 8.7%
High school diploma or GED 33.3%
Some college or associate's degree 29.7%
Bachelor's degree 18.0%
Graduate or professional degree 10.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -45.0%
% change: 1990-2000 -25.9%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 48.5%
% change: 1990-2000 31.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 282,925
Less than high school diploma 22.9%
High school diploma or GED 21.1%
Some college or associate's degree 19.2%
Bachelor's degree 17.7%
Graduate or professional degree 19.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 6.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 7,120,879
Less than high school diploma 16.8%
High school diploma or GED 36.7%
Some college or associate's degree 26.1%
Bachelor's degree 13.5%
Graduate or professional degree 6.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 221,320
Less than high school diploma 33.2%
High school diploma or GED 21.6%
Some college or associate's degree 17.4%
Bachelor's degree 12.9%
Graduate or professional degree 14.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 4.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 6,687,905
Less than high school diploma 24.1%
High school diploma or GED 36.9%
Some college or associate's degree 22.5%
Bachelor's degree 11.0%
Graduate or professional degree 5.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.