E.g., 09/20/2021
E.g., 09/20/2021
State Language Data - NM
 

New Mexico

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 201,012
Speak only English 11.7%
Speak English "very well" 37.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 23.3%
% change: 1990-2000 110.9%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 94,885
Speak only English 14.3%
Speak English "very well" 43.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.8%
Noncitizens 106,127
Speak only English 9.3%
Speak English "very well" 31%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 59.7%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,778,839
Speak only English 72.2%
Speak English ""very well"" 24.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -42.2%
% change: 1990-2000 0.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 147,292
Speak only English 14.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 56.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,542,619
Speak only English 68.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 24.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 77,841
Speak only English 16.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,305,168
Speak only English 67.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 23.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 356,872
Speak only English 258,040
Speak language other than English 98,832
Speak English "very well"
83,795
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
15,037
Speak Spanish 82,640
Speak English "very well"
70,561
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
12,079
Ages 18-64 1,245,249
Speak only English 803,232
Speak language other than English 442,017
Speak English "very well"
324,343
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
117,674
Speak Spanish 338,112
Speak English "very well"
244,930
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
93,182
65 and Older 377,730
Speak only English 246,319
Speak language other than English 131,411
Speak English "very well"
93,210
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
38,201
Speak Spanish 104,238
Speak English "very well"
75,565
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
28,673
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 72.3%
Speak language other than English 27.7%
Speak English "very well" 23.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.2%
Speak Spanish 23.2%
Speak English "very well" 19.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.4%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 64.5%
Speak language other than English 35.5%
Speak English "very well" 26.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.4%
Speak Spanish 27.2%
Speak English "very well" 19.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.5%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 65.2%
Speak language other than English 34.8%
Speak English "very well" 24.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 10.1%
Speak Spanish 27.6%
Speak English "very well" 20.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 1,979,851
Speak only English 1,307,591
Speak language other than English 672,260
Spanish 524,990
Speak English "very well" 391,056
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 133,934
French (Including Cajun) 4,030
Speak English "very well" 3,453
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 577
Haitian 567
Speak English "very well" 264
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 303
Italian 1,591
Speak English "very well" 1,461
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 130
Portuguese 633
Speak English "very well" 446
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 187
German 3,872
Speak English "very well" 3,276
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 596
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 1,094
Speak English "very well" 1,080
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14
Russian 531
Speak English "very well" 524
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7
Polish 611
Speak English "very well" 611
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Slavic Languages 823
Speak English "very well" 791
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 32
Armenian 38
Speak English "very well" 38
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 1,721
Speak English "very well" 1,153
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 568
Gujarati 295
Speak English "very well" 125
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 170
Hindi 854
Speak English "very well" 751
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 103
Urdu 981
Speak English "very well" 687
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 294
Punjabi 374
Speak English "very well" 274
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 100
Bengali 39
Speak English "very well" 39
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 488
Speak English "very well" 434
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54
Other Indo-European Languages 2,834
Speak English "very well" 1,808
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,026
Telugu 1,509
Speak English "very well" 1,151
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 358
Tamil 276
Speak English "very well" 195
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 81
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 5,050
Speak English "very well" 2,945
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,105
Japanese 2,158
Speak English "very well" 1,622
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 536
Korean 1,298
Speak English "very well" 658
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 640
Hmong 94
Speak English "very well" 94
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 5,492
Speak English "very well" 2,616
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,876
Khmer N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 847
Speak English "very well" 622
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 225
Other Languages of Asia 1,327
Speak English "very well" 1,019
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 308
Tagalog (including Filipino) 5,868
Speak English "very well" 4,476
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,392
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 872
Speak English "very well" 614
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 258
Arabic 1,399
Speak English "very well" 975
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 424
Hebrew 71
Speak English "very well" 71
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 280
Speak English "very well" 214
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 66
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 739
Speak English "very well" 541
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 198
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 1,563
Speak English "very well" 1,374
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 189
Native Languages of North America 96,137
Speak English "very well" 73,392
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22,745
Other and Unspecified Languages 914
Speak English "very well" 498
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 416
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 66.0%
Field 308 34.0%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 74.5%
Field 310 25.5%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 85.7%
Field 315 14.3%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 46.6%
Field 316 53.4%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 91.8%
Field 319 8.2%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 70.5%
Field 322 29.5%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 84.6%
Field 325 15.4%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 98.7%
Field 328 1.3%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 98.7%
Field 331 1.3%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 100.0%
Field 334 N
Field 337 100%
Field 337 96.1%
Field 337 3.9%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 100.0%
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 67.0%
Field 343 33.0%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 42.4%
Field 346 57.6%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 87.9%
Field 349 12.1%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 70.0%
Field 352 30.0%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 73.3%
Field 355 26.7%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 100.0%
Field 358 N
Field 361 100%
Field 361 88.9%
Field 361 11.1%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 63.8%
Field 364 36.2%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 76.3%
Field 367 23.7%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 70.7%
Field 370 29.3%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 N
Field 373 N
Field 376 100%
Field 376 58.3%
Field 376 41.7%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 75.2%
Field 379 24.8%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 50.7%
Field 382 49.3%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 47.6%
Field 388 52.4%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 N
Field 391 N
Field 394 100%
Field 394 73.4%
Field 394 26.6%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 76.8%
Field 397 23.2%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 76.3%
Field 400 23.7%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 70.4%
Field 403 29.6%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 69.7%
Field 406 30.3%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 100.0%
Field 409 N
Field 412 100%
Field 412 76.4%
Field 412 23.6%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 73.2%
Field 415 26.8%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 87.9%
Field 418 12.1%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 76.3%
Field 421 23.7%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 54.5%
Field 424 45.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 179,088
Less than high school diploma 40.4%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 17.6%
Bachelor's degree 8.9%
Graduate or professional degree 10.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 36.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 9.0%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 14.3%
% change: 1990-2000 92.6%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 120.3%
% change: 1990-2000 89.7%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 89,015
Less than high school diploma 31.6%
High school diploma or GED 20.5%
Some college or associate's degree 23.3%
Bachelor's degree 11.5%
Graduate or professional degree 13.1%
Noncitizens (%) 90,073
Less than high school diploma 49.2%
High school diploma or GED 23.9%
Some college or associate's degree 11.9%
Bachelor's degree 6.4%
Graduate or professional degree 8.7%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,246,900
Less than high school diploma 10.3%
High school diploma or GED 27.0%
Some college or associate's degree 33.9%
Bachelor's degree 16.5%
Graduate or professional degree 12.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -26.9%
% change: 1990-2000 -10.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 43.7%
% change: 1990-2000 39.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 114,805
Less than high school diploma 55.2%
High school diploma or GED 17.2%
Some college or associate's degree 13.6%
Bachelor's degree 6.6%
Graduate or professional degree 7.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 26.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 6.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,017,181
Less than high school diploma 17.3%
High school diploma or GED 27.5%
Some college or associate's degree 30.6%
Bachelor's degree 14.6%
Graduate or professional degree 10.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 59,724
Less than high school diploma 55.1%
High school diploma or GED 16.3%
Some college or associate's degree 14.4%
Bachelor's degree 7.1%
Graduate or professional degree 7.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 14.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 856,812
Less than high school diploma 22.9%
High school diploma or GED 29.3%
Some college or associate's degree 26.8%
Bachelor's degree 12.5%
Graduate or professional degree 8.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.