E.g., 01/18/2021
E.g., 01/18/2021

State Language Data - NM

New Mexico

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 197,737
Speak only English 10.9%
Speak English "very well" 37.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 22.3%
% change: 1990-2000 110.9%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 81,586
Speak only English 16.6%
Speak English "very well" 43%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40.4%
Noncitizens 116,151
Speak only English 6.9%
Speak English "very well" 33.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 59.5%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,779,197
Speak only English 72.0%
Speak English ""very well"" 23.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -24.7%
% change: 1990-2000 0.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 147,292
Speak only English 14.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 56.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,542,619
Speak only English 68.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 24.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 77,841
Speak only English 16.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,305,168
Speak only English 67.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 23.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 361,743
Speak only English 258,332
Speak language other than English 103,411
Speak English "very well"
85,793
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
17,618
Speak Spanish 83,220
Speak English "very well"
69,444
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
13,776
Ages 18-64 1,246,711
Speak only English 805,257
Speak language other than English 441,454
Speak English "very well"
306,136
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
135,318
Speak Spanish 337,658
Speak English "very well"
228,278
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
109,380
65 and Older 368,480
Speak only English 239,781
Speak language other than English 128,699
Speak English "very well"
90,974
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
37,725
Speak Spanish 100,896
Speak English "very well"
74,115
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
26,781
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 71.4%
Speak language other than English 28.6%
Speak English "very well" 23.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.9%
Speak Spanish 23.0%
Speak English "very well" 19.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.8%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 64.6%
Speak language other than English 35.4%
Speak English "very well" 24.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 10.9%
Speak Spanish 27.1%
Speak English "very well" 18.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.8%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 65.1%
Speak language other than English 34.9%
Speak English "very well" 24.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 10.2%
Speak Spanish 27.4%
Speak English "very well" 20.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.3%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 1,976,934
Speak only English 1,303,370
Speak language other than English 673,564
Spanish 521,774
Speak English "very well" 371,837
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 149,937
French (Including Cajun) 4,580
Speak English "very well" 4,013
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 567
Haitian 203
Speak English "very well" 176
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27
Italian 666
Speak English "very well" 562
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 104
Portuguese 249
Speak English "very well" 136
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 113
German 4,680
Speak English "very well" 4,023
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 657
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 841
Speak English "very well" 771
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 70
Russian 787
Speak English "very well" 551
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 236
Polish 881
Speak English "very well" 555
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 326
Other Slavic Languages 319
Speak English "very well" 69
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 250
Armenian 194
Speak English "very well" 194
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 1,508
Speak English "very well" 1,110
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 398
Gujarati 964
Speak English "very well" 740
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 224
Hindi 628
Speak English "very well" 404
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 224
Urdu 1,046
Speak English "very well" 820
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 226
Punjabi 62
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 62
Bengali 749
Speak English "very well" 358
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 391
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 947
Speak English "very well" 872
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 75
Other Indo-European Languages 1,273
Speak English "very well" 1,100
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 173
Telugu 56
Speak English "very well" 56
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Tamil 152
Speak English "very well" 152
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 713
Speak English "very well" 566
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 147
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 4,755
Speak English "very well" 3,104
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,651
Japanese 1,122
Speak English "very well" 628
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 494
Korean 2,058
Speak English "very well" 1,185
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 873
Hmong N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 5,547
Speak English "very well" 2,125
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,422
Khmer N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 1,543
Speak English "very well" 1,043
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 500
Other Languages of Asia 542
Speak English "very well" 395
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 147
Tagalog (including Filipino) 3,945
Speak English "very well" 2,849
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,096
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 341
Speak English "very well" 146
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 195
Arabic 2,636
Speak English "very well" 2,293
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 343
Hebrew 142
Speak English "very well" 89
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 605
Speak English "very well" 605
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 1,782
Speak English "very well" 894
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 888
Native Languages of North America 104,466
Speak English "very well" 77,809
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26,657
Other and Unspecified Languages 808
Speak English "very well" 673
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 135
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 65.9%
Field 308 34.1%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 71.3%
Field 310 28.7%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 87.6%
Field 315 12.4%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 86.7%
Field 316 13.3%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 84.4%
Field 319 15.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 54.6%
Field 322 45.4%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 86.0%
Field 325 14.0%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 91.7%
Field 328 8.3%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 70.0%
Field 331 30.0%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 63.0%
Field 334 37.0%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 21.6%
Field 337 78.4%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 100.0%
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 73.6%
Field 343 26.4%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 76.8%
Field 346 23.2%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 64.3%
Field 349 35.7%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 78.4%
Field 352 21.6%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 N
Field 355 100.0%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 47.8%
Field 358 52.2%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 92.1%
Field 361 7.9%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 86.4%
Field 364 13.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 100.0%
Field 367 N
Field 370 100%
Field 370 100.0%
Field 370 N
Field 373 100%
Field 373 79.4%
Field 373 20.6%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 65.3%
Field 376 34.7%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 56.0%
Field 379 44.0%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 57.6%
Field 382 42.4%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 38.3%
Field 388 61.7%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 N
Field 391 N
Field 394 100%
Field 394 67.6%
Field 394 32.4%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 72.9%
Field 397 27.1%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 72.2%
Field 400 27.8%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 42.8%
Field 403 57.2%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 87.0%
Field 406 13.0%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 62.7%
Field 409 37.3%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 N
Field 412 N
Field 415 100%
Field 415 100.0%
Field 415 N
Field 418 100%
Field 418 50.2%
Field 418 49.8%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 74.5%
Field 421 25.5%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 83.3%
Field 424 16.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 172,817
Less than high school diploma 42.4%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 17.5%
Bachelor's degree 8.9%
Graduate or professional degree 9.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 35.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 7.9%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 15.7%
% change: 1990-2000 92.6%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 91.4%
% change: 1990-2000 89.7%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 77,386
Less than high school diploma 32%
High school diploma or GED 22.4%
Some college or associate's degree 21.8%
Bachelor's degree 11%
Graduate or professional degree 12.8%
Noncitizens (%) 95,431
Less than high school diploma 50.9%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 14.1%
Bachelor's degree 7.2%
Graduate or professional degree 5.8%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,243,664
Less than high school diploma 10.7%
High school diploma or GED 26.7%
Some college or associate's degree 33.6%
Bachelor's degree 16.6%
Graduate or professional degree 12.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -24.4%
% change: 1990-2000 -10.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 44.4%
% change: 1990-2000 39.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 114,805
Less than high school diploma 55.2%
High school diploma or GED 17.2%
Some college or associate's degree 13.6%
Bachelor's degree 6.6%
Graduate or professional degree 7.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 26.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 6.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,017,181
Less than high school diploma 17.3%
High school diploma or GED 27.5%
Some college or associate's degree 30.6%
Bachelor's degree 14.6%
Graduate or professional degree 10.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 59,724
Less than high school diploma 55.1%
High school diploma or GED 16.3%
Some college or associate's degree 14.4%
Bachelor's degree 7.1%
Graduate or professional degree 7.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 14.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 856,812
Less than high school diploma 22.9%
High school diploma or GED 29.3%
Some college or associate's degree 26.8%
Bachelor's degree 12.5%
Graduate or professional degree 8.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.