E.g., 02/04/2023
E.g., 02/04/2023
State Language Data - NH
 

New Hampshire

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 86,721
Speak only English 29.6%
Speak English "very well" 41.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29.1%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 63.8%
% change: 1990-2000 54.1%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 49,606
Speak only English 36.4%
Speak English "very well" 40.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22.9%
Noncitizens 37,115
Speak only English 20.4%
Speak English "very well" 42.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.5%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,208,790
Speak only English 96.1%
Speak English ""very well"" 3.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -43.8%
% change: 1990-2000 -12.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 53,164
Speak only English 35.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,107,176
Speak only English 94.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 4.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 39,910
Speak only English 42.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 25.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 979,908
Speak only English 93.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 5.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 191,820
Speak only English 175,623
Speak language other than English 16,197
Speak English "very well"
13,631
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,566
Speak Spanish 7,166
Speak English "very well"
6,075
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
1,091
Ages 18-64 850,544
Speak only English 774,743
Speak language other than English 75,801
Speak English "very well"
51,149
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
24,652
Speak Spanish 25,460
Speak English "very well"
14,822
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
10,638
65 and Older 253,147
Speak only English 236,520
Speak language other than English 16,627
Speak English "very well"
11,467
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
5,160
Speak Spanish 3,068
Speak English "very well"
1,493
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
1,575
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 91.6%
Speak language other than English 8.4%
Speak English "very well" 7.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.3%
Speak Spanish 3.7%
Speak English "very well" 3.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.6%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 91.1%
Speak language other than English 8.9%
Speak English "very well" 6.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.9%
Speak Spanish 3.0%
Speak English "very well" 1.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.3%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 93.4%
Speak language other than English 6.6%
Speak English "very well" 4.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.0%
Speak Spanish 1.2%
Speak English "very well" 0.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 1,284,281
Speak only English 1,181,034
Speak language other than English 103,247
Spanish 30,292
Speak English "very well" 20,107
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,185
French (Including Cajun) 18,153
Speak English "very well" 14,644
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,509
Haitian 519
Speak English "very well" 368
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 151
Italian 1,417
Speak English "very well" 1,244
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 173
Portuguese 3,987
Speak English "very well" 2,642
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,345
German 3,253
Speak English "very well" 3,003
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 250
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 585
Speak English "very well" 554
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 31
Russian 1,812
Speak English "very well" 1,258
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 554
Polish 965
Speak English "very well" 764
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 201
Other Slavic Languages 1,960
Speak English "very well" 1,284
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 676
Armenian 107
Speak English "very well" 92
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 343
Speak English "very well" 231
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 112
Gujarati 745
Speak English "very well" 568
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 177
Hindi 1,789
Speak English "very well" 1,484
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 305
Urdu 390
Speak English "very well" 359
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 31
Punjabi 103
Speak English "very well" 34
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 69
Bengali 313
Speak English "very well" 255
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 4,154
Speak English "very well" 1,975
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,179
Other Indo-European Languages 3,910
Speak English "very well" 3,142
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 768
Telugu 2,153
Speak English "very well" 1,558
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 595
Tamil 1,464
Speak English "very well" 1,300
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 164
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 809
Speak English "very well" 726
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 83
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 5,703
Speak English "very well" 2,897
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,806
Japanese 840
Speak English "very well" 618
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 222
Korean 1,413
Speak English "very well" 760
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 653
Hmong 7
Speak English "very well" 7
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 2,363
Speak English "very well" 759
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,604
Khmer 499
Speak English "very well" 364
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 135
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 1,717
Speak English "very well" 812
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 905
Other Languages of Asia 675
Speak English "very well" 318
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 357
Tagalog (including Filipino) 2,093
Speak English "very well" 1,443
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 650
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 1,068
Speak English "very well" 726
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 342
Arabic 3,078
Speak English "very well" 1,849
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,229
Hebrew 503
Speak English "very well" 478
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 25
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 506
Speak English "very well" 377
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 129
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 755
Speak English "very well" 412
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 343
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 1,828
Speak English "very well" 846
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 982
Native Languages of North America 145
Speak English "very well" 104
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41
Other and Unspecified Languages 831
Speak English "very well" 769
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 62
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 92.0%
Field 308 8.0%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 66.4%
Field 310 33.6%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 80.7%
Field 315 19.3%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 70.9%
Field 316 29.1%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 87.8%
Field 319 12.2%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 66.3%
Field 322 33.7%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 92.3%
Field 325 7.7%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 94.7%
Field 328 5.3%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 69.4%
Field 331 30.6%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 79.2%
Field 334 20.8%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 65.5%
Field 337 34.5%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 86.0%
Field 340 14.0%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 67.3%
Field 343 32.7%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 76.2%
Field 346 23.8%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 83.0%
Field 349 17.0%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 92.1%
Field 352 7.9%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 33.0%
Field 355 67.0%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 81.5%
Field 358 18.5%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 47.5%
Field 361 52.5%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 80.4%
Field 364 19.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 72.4%
Field 367 27.6%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 88.8%
Field 370 11.2%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 89.7%
Field 373 10.3%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 50.8%
Field 376 49.2%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 73.6%
Field 379 26.4%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 53.8%
Field 382 46.2%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 32.1%
Field 388 67.9%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 72.9%
Field 391 27.1%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 47.3%
Field 394 52.7%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 47.1%
Field 397 52.9%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 68.9%
Field 400 31.1%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 68.0%
Field 403 32.0%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 60.1%
Field 406 39.9%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 95.0%
Field 409 5.0%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 74.5%
Field 412 25.5%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 54.6%
Field 415 45.4%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 46.3%
Field 418 53.7%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 71.7%
Field 421 28.3%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 92.5%
Field 424 7.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 74,558
Less than high school diploma 15.3%
High school diploma or GED 20.8%
Some college or associate's degree 19.8%
Bachelor's degree 21.5%
Graduate or professional degree 22.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 17.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.9%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 11.7%
% change: 1990-2000 -17.9%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 141.7%
% change: 1990-2000 65.3%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 43,750
Less than high school diploma 13%
High school diploma or GED 20.9%
Some college or associate's degree 23.6%
Bachelor's degree 20.7%
Graduate or professional degree 21.7%
Noncitizens (%) 30,808
Less than high school diploma 18.5%
High school diploma or GED 20.7%
Some college or associate's degree 14.5%
Bachelor's degree 22.5%
Graduate or professional degree 23.8%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 905,192
Less than high school diploma 6.0%
High school diploma or GED 28.7%
Some college or associate's degree 28.3%
Bachelor's degree 23.0%
Graduate or professional degree 14.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -41.3%
% change: 1990-2000 -17.6%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 51.4%
% change: 1990-2000 34.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 43,138
Less than high school diploma 23.7%
High school diploma or GED 20.4%
Some college or associate's degree 24.5%
Bachelor's degree 17.7%
Graduate or professional degree 13.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 9.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 778,539
Less than high school diploma 11.9%
High school diploma or GED 30.5%
Some college or associate's degree 29.1%
Bachelor's degree 18.7%
Graduate or professional degree 9.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 35,802
Less than high school diploma 34.7%
High school diploma or GED 23.3%
Some college or associate's degree 19.0%
Bachelor's degree 11.9%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 10.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 676,449
Less than high school diploma 16.6%
High school diploma or GED 32.3%
Some college or associate's degree 26.8%
Bachelor's degree 16.5%
Graduate or professional degree 7.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.