E.g., 07/08/2020
E.g., 07/08/2020

State Language Data - NH

New Hampshire

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 82,440
Speak only English 33.9%
Speak English "very well" 35.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 31.1%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 66.1%
% change: 1990-2000 54.1%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 51,020
Speak only English 37.6%
Speak English "very well" 34.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27.6%
Noncitizens 31,420
Speak only English 27.8%
Speak English "very well" 35.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 36.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,211,161
Speak only English 96.2%
Speak English ""very well"" 3.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -43.8%
% change: 1990-2000 -12.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 53,164
Speak only English 35.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,107,176
Speak only English 94.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 4.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 39,910
Speak only English 42.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 25.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 979,908
Speak only English 93.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 5.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 195,271
Speak only English 181,974
Speak language other than English 13,297
Speak English "very well"
10,052
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
3,245
Speak Spanish 5,892
Speak English "very well"
5,031
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
861
Ages 18-64 853,174
Speak only English 784,304
Speak language other than English 68,870
Speak English "very well"
45,407
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
23,463
Speak Spanish 22,581
Speak English "very well"
13,505
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
9,076
65 and Older 245,156
Speak only English 227,034
Speak language other than English 18,122
Speak English "very well"
12,111
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
6,011
Speak Spanish 2,619
Speak English "very well"
1,452
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
1,167
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 93.2%
Speak language other than English 6.8%
Speak English "very well" 5.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.7%
Speak Spanish 3.0%
Speak English "very well" 2.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.4%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 91.9%
Speak language other than English 8.1%
Speak English "very well" 5.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.8%
Speak Spanish 2.6%
Speak English "very well" 1.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.1%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 92.6%
Speak language other than English 7.4%
Speak English "very well" 4.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.5%
Speak Spanish 1.1%
Speak English "very well" 0.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 1,293,601
Speak only English 1,193,312
Speak language other than English 100,289
Spanish 31,092
Speak English "very well" 19,988
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,104
French (Including Cajun) 17,102
Speak English "very well" 13,516
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,586
Haitian 281
Speak English "very well" 281
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Italian 1,133
Speak English "very well" 937
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 196
Portuguese 3,518
Speak English "very well" 2,285
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,233
German 3,401
Speak English "very well" 3,152
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 249
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 337
Speak English "very well" 337
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Russian 2,586
Speak English "very well" 1,703
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 883
Polish 632
Speak English "very well" 583
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49
Other Slavic Languages 1,932
Speak English "very well" 1,352
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 580
Armenian 105
Speak English "very well" 105
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 351
Speak English "very well" 174
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 177
Gujarati 859
Speak English "very well" 389
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 470
Hindi 1,751
Speak English "very well" 1,443
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 308
Urdu 312
Speak English "very well" 262
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50
Punjabi N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Bengali 272
Speak English "very well" 173
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 99
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 4,773
Speak English "very well" 2,184
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,589
Other Indo-European Languages 4,389
Speak English "very well" 3,662
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 727
Telugu 2,307
Speak English "very well" 1,956
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 351
Tamil 608
Speak English "very well" 608
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 414
Speak English "very well" 346
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 68
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 5,139
Speak English "very well" 2,478
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,661
Japanese 849
Speak English "very well" 627
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 222
Korean 1,137
Speak English "very well" 775
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 362
Hmong N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 1,989
Speak English "very well" 654
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,335
Khmer 131
Speak English "very well" 131
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 1,646
Speak English "very well" 907
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 739
Other Languages of Asia 1,909
Speak English "very well" 485
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,424
Tagalog (including Filipino) 1,983
Speak English "very well" 1,593
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 390
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 1,244
Speak English "very well" 612
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 632
Arabic 1,162
Speak English "very well" 608
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 554
Hebrew 248
Speak English "very well" 248
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 774
Speak English "very well" 665
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 109
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 587
Speak English "very well" 376
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 211
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 1,750
Speak English "very well" 512
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,238
Native Languages of North America 94
Speak English "very well" 49
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45
Other and Unspecified Languages 1,492
Speak English "very well" 1,414
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 78
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 92.2%
Field 308 7.8%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 64.3%
Field 310 35.7%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 79.0%
Field 315 21.0%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 100.0%
Field 316 N
Field 319 100%
Field 319 82.7%
Field 319 17.3%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 65.0%
Field 322 35.0%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 92.7%
Field 325 7.3%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 100.0%
Field 328 N
Field 331 100%
Field 331 65.9%
Field 331 34.1%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 92.2%
Field 334 7.8%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 70.0%
Field 337 30.0%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 100.0%
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 49.6%
Field 343 50.4%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 45.3%
Field 346 54.7%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 82.4%
Field 349 17.6%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 84.0%
Field 352 16.0%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 N
Field 355 N
Field 358 100%
Field 358 63.6%
Field 358 36.4%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 45.8%
Field 361 54.2%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 83.4%
Field 364 16.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 84.8%
Field 367 15.2%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 100.0%
Field 370 N
Field 373 100%
Field 373 83.6%
Field 373 16.4%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 48.2%
Field 376 51.8%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 73.9%
Field 379 26.1%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 68.2%
Field 382 31.8%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 32.9%
Field 388 67.1%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 100.0%
Field 391 N
Field 394 100%
Field 394 55.1%
Field 394 44.9%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 25.4%
Field 397 74.6%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 80.3%
Field 400 19.7%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 49.2%
Field 403 50.8%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 52.3%
Field 406 47.7%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 100.0%
Field 409 N
Field 412 100%
Field 412 85.9%
Field 412 14.1%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 64.1%
Field 415 35.9%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 29.3%
Field 418 70.7%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 52.1%
Field 421 47.9%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 94.8%
Field 424 5.2%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 69,768
Less than high school diploma 16.6%
High school diploma or GED 21.4%
Some college or associate's degree 21.3%
Bachelor's degree 20.1%
Graduate or professional degree 20.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 17.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 7.9%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 13.5%
% change: 1990-2000 -17.9%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 109.0%
% change: 1990-2000 65.3%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 45,641
Less than high school diploma 13.7%
High school diploma or GED 21%
Some college or associate's degree 25.2%
Bachelor's degree 19.9%
Graduate or professional degree 20.2%
Noncitizens (%) 24,127
Less than high school diploma 22.2%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 13.7%
Bachelor's degree 20.6%
Graduate or professional degree 21.4%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 900,980
Less than high school diploma 6.1%
High school diploma or GED 28.2%
Some college or associate's degree 29.1%
Bachelor's degree 22.6%
Graduate or professional degree 14.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -40.6%
% change: 1990-2000 -17.6%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 48.6%
% change: 1990-2000 34.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 43,138
Less than high school diploma 23.7%
High school diploma or GED 20.4%
Some college or associate's degree 24.5%
Bachelor's degree 17.7%
Graduate or professional degree 13.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 9.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 778,539
Less than high school diploma 11.9%
High school diploma or GED 30.5%
Some college or associate's degree 29.1%
Bachelor's degree 18.7%
Graduate or professional degree 9.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 35,802
Less than high school diploma 34.7%
High school diploma or GED 23.3%
Some college or associate's degree 19.0%
Bachelor's degree 11.9%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 10.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 676,449
Less than high school diploma 16.6%
High school diploma or GED 32.3%
Some college or associate's degree 26.8%
Bachelor's degree 16.5%
Graduate or professional degree 7.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.