E.g., 04/20/2024
E.g., 04/20/2024
State Language Data - NC
 

North Carolina

Language & Education
2022
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 907,156
Speak only English 19.8%
Speak English "very well" 37.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2022 73.3%
% change: 1990-2000 526.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 403,679
Speak only English 28.4%
Speak English "very well" 43.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27.8%
Noncitizens 503,477
Speak only English 12.8%
Speak English "very well" 32.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54.3%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 9,207,325
Speak only English 93.9%
Speak English ""very well"" 5.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 27.9%
% change: 1990-2000 44.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 420,957
Speak only English 17.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 52.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 7,092,208
Speak only English 96.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 114,822
Speak only English 33.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 30.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,042,849
Speak only English 97.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,708,436
Speak only English 1,436,386
Speak language other than English 272,050
Speak English "very well"
210,464
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
61,586
Speak Spanish 202,947
Speak English "very well"
155,199
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
47,748
Ages 18-64 6,539,431
Speak only English 5,624,709
Speak language other than English 914,722
Speak English "very well"
540,224
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
374,498
Speak Spanish 557,043
Speak English "very well"
294,981
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
262,062
65 and Older 1,866,614
Speak only English 1,764,040
Speak language other than English 102,574
Speak English "very well"
56,661
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
45,913
Speak Spanish 42,696
Speak English "very well"
22,488
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
20,208
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 84.1%
Speak language other than English 15.9%
Speak English "very well" 12.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.6%
Speak Spanish 11.9%
Speak English "very well" 9.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.8%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 86.0%
Speak language other than English 14.0%
Speak English "very well" 8.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.7%
Speak Spanish 8.5%
Speak English "very well" 4.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.0%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 94.5%
Speak language other than English 5.5%
Speak English "very well" 3.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.5%
Speak Spanish 2.3%
Speak English "very well" 1.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 10,114,481
Speak only English 8,825,135
Speak language other than English 1,289,346
Spanish 802,686
Speak English "very well" 472,668
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 330,018
French (Including Cajun) 32,522
Speak English "very well" 26,097
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,425
Haitian 7,548
Speak English "very well" 4,536
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,012
Italian 7,266
Speak English "very well" 6,008
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,258
Portuguese 12,352
Speak English "very well" 8,467
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,885
German 25,895
Speak English "very well" 22,495
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,400
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 4,831
Speak English "very well" 4,340
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 491
Russian 17,376
Speak English "very well" 11,979
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,397
Polish 4,005
Speak English "very well" 3,684
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 321
Other Slavic Languages 12,267
Speak English "very well" 7,772
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,495
Armenian 195
Speak English "very well" 195
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 7,265
Speak English "very well" 4,964
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,301
Gujarati 14,838
Speak English "very well" 7,993
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,845
Hindi 23,349
Speak English "very well" 19,287
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,062
Urdu 8,173
Speak English "very well" 5,893
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,280
Punjabi 1,156
Speak English "very well" 846
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 310
Bengali 3,770
Speak English "very well" 2,984
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 786
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 11,382
Speak English "very well" 8,278
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,104
Other Indo-European Languages 20,002
Speak English "very well" 13,703
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,299
Telugu 22,772
Speak English "very well" 17,912
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,860
Tamil 10,924
Speak English "very well" 9,084
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,840
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 7,290
Speak English "very well" 6,776
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 514
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 40,611
Speak English "very well" 23,549
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17,062
Japanese 8,086
Speak English "very well" 4,520
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,566
Korean 15,282
Speak English "very well" 7,074
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,208
Hmong 9,597
Speak English "very well" 5,685
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,912
Vietnamese 26,104
Speak English "very well" 12,512
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,592
Khmer 1,468
Speak English "very well" 645
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 823
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 8,513
Speak English "very well" 4,225
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,288
Other Languages of Asia 16,136
Speak English "very well" 8,628
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,508
Tagalog (including Filipino) 16,187
Speak English "very well" 12,838
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,349
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 10,246
Speak English "very well" 5,498
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,748
Arabic 30,725
Speak English "very well" 19,815
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,910
Hebrew 2,079
Speak English "very well" 1,680
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 399
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 10,133
Speak English "very well" 6,012
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,121
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 19,103
Speak English "very well" 16,308
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,795
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 6,275
Speak English "very well" 4,464
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,811
Native Languages of North America 3,432
Speak English "very well" 3,095
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 337
Other and Unspecified Languages 7,505
Speak English "very well" 4,840
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,665
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 87.3%
Field 308 12.7%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.9%
Field 310 41.1%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 80.2%
Field 315 19.8%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 60.1%
Field 316 39.9%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 82.7%
Field 319 17.3%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 68.5%
Field 322 31.5%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 86.9%
Field 325 13.1%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 89.8%
Field 328 10.2%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 68.9%
Field 331 31.1%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 92.0%
Field 334 8.0%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 63.4%
Field 337 36.6%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 100.0%
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 68.3%
Field 343 31.7%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 53.9%
Field 346 46.1%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 82.6%
Field 349 17.4%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 72.1%
Field 352 27.9%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 73.2%
Field 355 26.8%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 79.2%
Field 358 20.8%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 72.7%
Field 361 27.3%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 68.5%
Field 364 31.5%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 78.7%
Field 367 21.3%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 83.2%
Field 370 16.8%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 92.9%
Field 373 7.1%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 58.0%
Field 376 42.0%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 55.9%
Field 379 44.1%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 46.3%
Field 382 53.7%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 59.2%
Field 385 40.8%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 47.9%
Field 388 52.1%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 43.9%
Field 391 56.1%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 49.6%
Field 394 50.4%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 53.5%
Field 397 46.5%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 79.3%
Field 400 20.7%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 53.7%
Field 403 46.3%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 64.5%
Field 406 35.5%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 80.8%
Field 409 19.2%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 59.3%
Field 412 40.7%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 85.4%
Field 415 14.6%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 71.1%
Field 418 28.9%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 90.2%
Field 421 9.8%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 64.5%
Field 424 35.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 783,752
Less than high school diploma 26.0%
High school diploma or GED 20.7%
Some college or associate's degree 17.2%
Bachelor's degree 19.7%
Graduate or professional degree 16.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 28.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 10.7%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2022 80.1%
% change: 1990-2000 456.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2022 280.0%
% change: 1990-2000 152.1%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 371,168
Less than high school diploma 14.6%
High school diploma or GED 19%
Some college or associate's degree 21.9%
Bachelor's degree 24.4%
Graduate or professional degree 20.1%
Noncitizens (%) 412,584
Less than high school diploma 36.3%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 13.1%
Bachelor's degree 15.6%
Graduate or professional degree 12.8%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 6,588,368
Less than high school diploma 7.9%
High school diploma or GED 25.4%
Some college or associate's degree 30.8%
Bachelor's degree 23.1%
Graduate or professional degree 12.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -50.4%
% change: 1990-2000 -16.3%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 114.8%
% change: 1990-2000 54.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 296,126
Less than high school diploma 38.2%
High school diploma or GED 18.3%
Some college or associate's degree 18.3%
Bachelor's degree 13.8%
Graduate or professional degree 11.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 9.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 6.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,990,153
Less than high school diploma 20.9%
High school diploma or GED 29.2%
Some college or associate's degree 27.8%
Bachelor's degree 15.1%
Graduate or professional degree 6.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 90,990
Less than high school diploma 22.4%
High school diploma or GED 21.0%
Some college or associate's degree 24.2%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 15.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 1.6%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,155,306
Less than high school diploma 30.1%
High school diploma or GED 29.2%
Some college or associate's degree 23.6%
Bachelor's degree 12.0%
Graduate or professional degree 5.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2022 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, click here. For ACS methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Matthew Sobek, Daniel Backman, Annie Chen, Grace Cooper, Stephanie Richards, Renae Rogers, and Megan Schouweiler. IPUMS USA: Version 14.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2023. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V14.0​.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.