E.g., 03/05/2021
E.g., 03/05/2021

State Language Data - MN

Minnesota

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 480,941
Speak only English 20.3%
Speak English "very well" 38.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 72.7%
% change: 1990-2000 177.3%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 253,852
Speak only English 25.3%
Speak English "very well" 39.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 35.1%
Noncitizens 227,089
Speak only English 14.8%
Speak English "very well" 36.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 48.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,775,306
Speak only English 94.6%
Speak English ""very well"" 4.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -18.5%
% change: 1990-2000 30.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 254,250
Speak only English 22.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,337,241
Speak only English 95.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 111,512
Speak only English 31.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 31.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 3,920,023
Speak only English 96.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 947,115
Speak only English 801,598
Speak language other than English 145,517
Speak English "very well"
111,828
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
33,689
Speak Spanish 60,102
Speak English "very well"
48,318
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
11,784
Ages 18-64 3,420,498
Speak only English 2,974,036
Speak language other than English 446,462
Speak English "very well"
262,575
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
183,887
Speak Spanish 142,655
Speak English "very well"
79,088
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
63,567
65 and Older 888,634
Speak only English 838,733
Speak language other than English 49,901
Speak English "very well"
25,595
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
24,306
Speak Spanish 8,814
Speak English "very well"
5,362
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
3,452
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 84.6%
Speak language other than English 15.4%
Speak English "very well" 11.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.6%
Speak Spanish 6.3%
Speak English "very well" 5.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.2%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 86.9%
Speak language other than English 13.1%
Speak English "very well" 7.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.4%
Speak Spanish 4.2%
Speak English "very well" 2.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.9%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 94.4%
Speak language other than English 5.6%
Speak English "very well" 2.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.7%
Speak Spanish 1.0%
Speak English "very well" 0.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 5,256,247
Speak only English 4,614,367
Speak language other than English 641,880
Spanish 211,571
Speak English "very well" 132,768
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 78,803
French (Including Cajun) 16,672
Speak English "very well" 12,743
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,929
Haitian 1,336
Speak English "very well" 1,024
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 312
Italian 1,923
Speak English "very well" 1,230
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 693
Portuguese 3,848
Speak English "very well" 2,905
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 943
German 20,331
Speak English "very well" 18,564
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,767
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 2,984
Speak English "very well" 2,590
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 394
Russian 15,076
Speak English "very well" 8,211
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,865
Polish 2,186
Speak English "very well" 1,752
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 434
Other Slavic Languages 8,463
Speak English "very well" 4,957
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,506
Armenian N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 1,553
Speak English "very well" 946
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 607
Gujarati 1,875
Speak English "very well" 1,424
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 451
Hindi 8,984
Speak English "very well" 7,714
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,270
Urdu 2,909
Speak English "very well" 2,261
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 648
Punjabi 1,742
Speak English "very well" 1,115
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 627
Bengali 2,371
Speak English "very well" 1,919
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 452
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 8,273
Speak English "very well" 5,425
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,848
Other Indo-European Languages 7,637
Speak English "very well" 6,570
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,067
Telugu 4,730
Speak English "very well" 3,799
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 931
Tamil 3,954
Speak English "very well" 3,111
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 843
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 2,924
Speak English "very well" 2,360
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 564
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 24,871
Speak English "very well" 15,141
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,730
Japanese 4,352
Speak English "very well" 2,918
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,434
Korean 4,392
Speak English "very well" 2,582
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,810
Hmong 67,116
Speak English "very well" 37,232
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29,884
Vietnamese 20,834
Speak English "very well" 9,587
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,247
Khmer 5,180
Speak English "very well" 3,188
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,992
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 9,538
Speak English "very well" 4,118
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,420
Other Languages of Asia 17,886
Speak English "very well" 6,361
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,525
Tagalog (including Filipino) 8,205
Speak English "very well" 6,130
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,075
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 3,057
Speak English "very well" 2,528
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 529
Arabic 15,293
Speak English "very well" 9,981
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,312
Hebrew 1,488
Speak English "very well" 1,199
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 289
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 93,919
Speak English "very well" 49,134
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 44,785
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 11,708
Speak English "very well" 8,371
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,337
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 10,940
Speak English "very well" 7,823
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,117
Native Languages of North America 7,521
Speak English "very well" 7,053
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 468
Other and Unspecified Languages 4,238
Speak English "very well" 3,264
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 974
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 87.8%
Field 308 12.2%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 62.8%
Field 310 37.2%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 76.4%
Field 315 23.6%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 76.6%
Field 316 23.4%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 64.0%
Field 319 36.0%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 75.5%
Field 322 24.5%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 91.3%
Field 325 8.7%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 86.8%
Field 328 13.2%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 54.5%
Field 331 45.5%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 80.1%
Field 334 19.9%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 58.6%
Field 337 41.4%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 N
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 60.9%
Field 343 39.1%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 75.9%
Field 346 24.1%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 85.9%
Field 349 14.1%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 77.7%
Field 352 22.3%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 64.0%
Field 355 36.0%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 80.9%
Field 358 19.1%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 65.6%
Field 361 34.4%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 86.0%
Field 364 14.0%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 80.3%
Field 367 19.7%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 78.7%
Field 370 21.3%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 80.7%
Field 373 19.3%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 60.9%
Field 376 39.1%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 67.0%
Field 379 33.0%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 58.8%
Field 382 41.2%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 55.5%
Field 385 44.5%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 46.0%
Field 388 54.0%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 61.5%
Field 391 38.5%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 43.2%
Field 394 56.8%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 35.6%
Field 397 64.4%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 74.7%
Field 400 25.3%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 82.7%
Field 403 17.3%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 65.3%
Field 406 34.7%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 80.6%
Field 409 19.4%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 52.3%
Field 412 47.7%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 71.5%
Field 415 28.5%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 71.5%
Field 418 28.5%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 93.8%
Field 421 6.2%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 77.0%
Field 424 23.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 388,285
Less than high school diploma 24.2%
High school diploma or GED 19.6%
Some college or associate's degree 22.2%
Bachelor's degree 18.3%
Graduate or professional degree 15.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 9.5%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 78.0%
% change: 1990-2000 99.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 156.8%
% change: 1990-2000 110.7%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 216,080
Less than high school diploma 19.8%
High school diploma or GED 19.7%
Some college or associate's degree 26.6%
Bachelor's degree 19%
Graduate or professional degree 14.9%
Noncitizens (%) 172,205
Less than high school diploma 29.6%
High school diploma or GED 19.4%
Some college or associate's degree 16.7%
Bachelor's degree 17.3%
Graduate or professional degree 16.9%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,420,944
Less than high school diploma 4.6%
High school diploma or GED 24.7%
Some college or associate's degree 33.6%
Bachelor's degree 24.8%
Graduate or professional degree 12.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -51.7%
% change: 1990-2000 -28.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 55.3%
% change: 1990-2000 41.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 173,147
Less than high school diploma 30.4%
High school diploma or GED 18.9%
Some college or associate's degree 20.9%
Bachelor's degree 15.8%
Graduate or professional degree 14.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 13.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,986,305
Less than high school diploma 11.0%
High school diploma or GED 29.3%
Some college or associate's degree 32.4%
Bachelor's degree 19.2%
Graduate or professional degree 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 85,870
Less than high school diploma 30.8%
High school diploma or GED 18.3%
Some college or associate's degree 22.4%
Bachelor's degree 14.3%
Graduate or professional degree 14.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,680,090
Less than high school diploma 17.2%
High school diploma or GED 33.3%
Some college or associate's degree 27.9%
Bachelor's degree 15.6%
Graduate or professional degree 5.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.