E.g., 07/20/2019
E.g., 07/20/2019

State Language Data - MD

Maryland

Language & Education
2017
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 920,272
Speak only English 20.2%
Speak English "very well" 43.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 36.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2017 75.8%
% change: 1990-2000 87.9%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 485,589
Speak only English 25.2%
Speak English "very well" 49%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 25.8%
Noncitizens 434,683
Speak only English 14.7%
Speak English "very well" 36.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49.0%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,768,592
Speak only English 92.7%
Speak English ""very well"" 6.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 2.1%
% change: 1990-2000 20.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 511,881
Speak only English 22.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,433,162
Speak only English 94.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 307,273
Speak only English 27.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 38.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,116,970
Speak only English 95.8%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 983,637
Speak only English 791,595
Speak language other than English 192,042
Speak English "very well"
156,030
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
36,012
Speak Spanish 113,898
Speak English "very well"
92,222
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
21,676
Ages 18-64 3,802,641
Speak only English 3,022,560
Speak language other than English 780,081
Speak English "very well"
477,943
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
302,138
Speak Spanish 344,016
Speak English "very well"
169,896
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
174,120
65 and Older 902,586
Speak only English 790,370
Speak language other than English 112,216
Speak English "very well"
57,108
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
55,108
Speak Spanish 28,098
Speak English "very well"
12,583
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
15,515
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 80.5%
Speak language other than English 19.5%
Speak English "very well" 15.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.7%
Speak Spanish 11.6%
Speak English "very well" 9.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.2%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 79.5%
Speak language other than English 20.5%
Speak English "very well" 12.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 7.9%
Speak Spanish 9.0%
Speak English "very well" 4.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.6%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 87.6%
Speak language other than English 12.4%
Speak English "very well" 6.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.1%
Speak Spanish 3.1%
Speak English "very well" 1.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 5,688,864
Speak only English 4,604,525
Speak language other than English 1,084,339
Spanish 486,012
Speak English "very well" 274,701
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 211,311
French (Including Cajun) 57,705
Speak English "very well" 44,716
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,989
Haitian 16,097
Speak English "very well" 10,371
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,726
Italian 7,781
Speak English "very well" 6,256
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,525
Portuguese 12,167
Speak English "very well" 9,144
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,023
German 11,983
Speak English "very well" 10,670
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,313
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 2,821
Speak English "very well" 2,420
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 401
Russian 19,691
Speak English "very well" 13,102
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,589
Polish 4,347
Speak English "very well" 3,457
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 890
Other Slavic Languages 5,925
Speak English "very well" 5,011
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 914
Armenian 1,228
Speak English "very well" 740
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 488
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 12,906
Speak English "very well" 9,518
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,388
Gujarati 10,272
Speak English "very well" 7,354
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,918
Hindi 18,874
Speak English "very well" 15,216
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,658
Urdu 25,046
Speak English "very well" 19,232
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,814
Punjabi 11,465
Speak English "very well" 7,342
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,123
Bengali 10,008
Speak English "very well" 6,328
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,680
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 15,239
Speak English "very well" 10,834
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,405
Other Indo-European Languages 17,984
Speak English "very well" 13,714
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,270
Telugu 8,521
Speak English "very well" 7,098
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,423
Tamil 7,122
Speak English "very well" 5,604
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,518
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 3,002
Speak English "very well" 2,524
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 478
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 72,246
Speak English "very well" 39,779
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 32,467
Japanese 5,585
Speak English "very well" 3,579
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,006
Korean 39,601
Speak English "very well" 19,165
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,436
Hmong 35
Speak English "very well" 35
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 17,199
Speak English "very well" 7,555
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,644
Khmer 2,081
Speak English "very well" 989
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,092
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 5,052
Speak English "very well" 2,307
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,745
Other Languages of Asia 12,159
Speak English "very well" 4,779
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,380
Tagalog (including Filipino) 37,180
Speak English "very well" 28,553
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,627
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 3,501
Speak English "very well" 2,513
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 988
Arabic 18,513
Speak English "very well" 13,052
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,461
Hebrew 5,221
Speak English "very well" 4,444
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 777
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 28,646
Speak English "very well" 18,188
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,458
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 48,899
Speak English "very well" 42,196
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,703
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 8,473
Speak English "very well" 6,732
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,741
Native Languages of North America 121
Speak English "very well" 89
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 32
Other and Unspecified Languages 13,631
Speak English "very well" 11,774
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,857
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 80.9%
Field 308 19.1%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 56.5%
Field 310 43.5%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 77.5%
Field 315 22.5%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 64.4%
Field 316 35.6%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 80.4%
Field 319 19.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 75.2%
Field 322 24.8%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 89.0%
Field 325 11.0%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 85.8%
Field 328 14.2%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 66.5%
Field 331 33.5%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 79.5%
Field 334 20.5%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 84.6%
Field 337 15.4%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 60.3%
Field 340 39.7%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 73.7%
Field 343 26.3%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 71.6%
Field 346 28.4%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 80.6%
Field 349 19.4%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 76.8%
Field 352 23.2%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 64.0%
Field 355 36.0%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 63.2%
Field 358 36.8%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 71.1%
Field 361 28.9%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 76.3%
Field 364 23.7%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 83.3%
Field 367 16.7%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 78.7%
Field 370 21.3%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 84.1%
Field 373 15.9%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 55.1%
Field 376 44.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 64.1%
Field 379 35.9%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 48.4%
Field 382 51.6%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 43.9%
Field 388 56.1%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 47.5%
Field 391 52.5%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 45.7%
Field 394 54.3%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 39.3%
Field 397 60.7%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 76.8%
Field 400 23.2%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 71.8%
Field 403 28.2%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 70.5%
Field 406 29.5%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 85.1%
Field 409 14.9%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 63.5%
Field 412 36.5%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 86.3%
Field 415 13.7%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 79.5%
Field 418 20.5%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 73.6%
Field 421 26.4%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 86.4%
Field 424 13.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 795,312
Less than high school diploma 19.9%
High school diploma or GED 18.7%
Some college or associate's degree 19.2%
Bachelor's degree 21.0%
Graduate or professional degree 21.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 20.3%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2017 74.9%
% change: 1990-2000 68.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2017 102.0%
% change: 1990-2000 82.5%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 444,960
Less than high school diploma 10.6%
High school diploma or GED 18.1%
Some college or associate's degree 21.9%
Bachelor's degree 24.4%
Graduate or professional degree 25%
Noncitizens (%) 350,352
Less than high school diploma 31.7%
High school diploma or GED 19.6%
Some college or associate's degree 15.7%
Bachelor's degree 16.7%
Graduate or professional degree 16.3%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,372,292
Less than high school diploma 7.8%
High school diploma or GED 25.9%
Some college or associate's degree 27.3%
Bachelor's degree 21.4%
Graduate or professional degree 17.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -44.8%
% change: 1990-2000 -23.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 41.6%
% change: 1990-2000 25.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 413,130
Less than high school diploma 21.9%
High school diploma or GED 17.7%
Some college or associate's degree 20.2%
Bachelor's degree 19.4%
Graduate or professional degree 20.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 16.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 15.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,082,441
Less than high school diploma 15.4%
High school diploma or GED 27.9%
Some college or associate's degree 26.6%
Bachelor's degree 17.7%
Graduate or professional degree 12.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 247,691
Less than high school diploma 21.7%
High school diploma or GED 19.4%
Some college or associate's degree 22.2%
Bachelor's degree 17.8%
Graduate or professional degree 19.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 8.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 11.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,876,478
Less than high school diploma 21.5%
High school diploma or GED 28.7%
Some college or associate's degree 24.1%
Bachelor's degree 15.5%
Graduate or professional degree 10.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2017 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2013-2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2017 ACS.