E.g., 08/15/2020
E.g., 08/15/2020

State Language Data - MD

Maryland

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 906,921
Speak only English 20.7%
Speak English "very well" 42.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 74.2%
% change: 1990-2000 87.9%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 488,276
Speak only English 25.5%
Speak English "very well" 48.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26.2%
Noncitizens 418,645
Speak only English 15%
Speak English "very well" 35.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49.5%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,774,362
Speak only English 92.0%
Speak English ""very well"" 6.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 14.0%
% change: 1990-2000 20.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 511,881
Speak only English 22.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,433,162
Speak only English 94.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 307,273
Speak only English 27.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 38.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,116,970
Speak only English 95.8%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 976,920
Speak only English 776,293
Speak language other than English 200,627
Speak English "very well"
158,624
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
42,003
Speak Spanish 115,728
Speak English "very well"
89,141
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
26,587
Ages 18-64 3,773,322
Speak only English 2,986,859
Speak language other than English 786,463
Speak English "very well"
486,317
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
300,146
Speak Spanish 338,467
Speak English "very well"
169,763
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
168,704
65 and Older 931,041
Speak only English 818,912
Speak language other than English 112,129
Speak English "very well"
57,672
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
54,457
Speak Spanish 27,689
Speak English "very well"
11,537
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
16,152
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 79.5%
Speak language other than English 20.5%
Speak English "very well" 16.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.3%
Speak Spanish 11.8%
Speak English "very well" 9.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.7%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 79.2%
Speak language other than English 20.8%
Speak English "very well" 12.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.0%
Speak Spanish 9.0%
Speak English "very well" 4.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.5%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 88.0%
Speak language other than English 12.0%
Speak English "very well" 6.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.8%
Speak Spanish 3.0%
Speak English "very well" 1.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 5,681,283
Speak only English 4,582,064
Speak language other than English 1,099,219
Spanish 481,884
Speak English "very well" 270,441
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 211,443
French (Including Cajun) 60,237
Speak English "very well" 45,219
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,018
Haitian 10,111
Speak English "very well" 7,680
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,431
Italian 8,495
Speak English "very well" 7,171
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,324
Portuguese 18,276
Speak English "very well" 12,945
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,331
German 16,189
Speak English "very well" 14,500
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,689
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 3,203
Speak English "very well" 2,460
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 743
Russian 17,781
Speak English "very well" 11,149
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,632
Polish 2,689
Speak English "very well" 2,159
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 530
Other Slavic Languages 6,626
Speak English "very well" 4,394
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,232
Armenian 1,116
Speak English "very well" 784
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 332
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 13,271
Speak English "very well" 9,777
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,494
Gujarati 8,784
Speak English "very well" 6,331
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,453
Hindi 21,580
Speak English "very well" 18,011
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,569
Urdu 17,141
Speak English "very well" 11,498
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,643
Punjabi 5,369
Speak English "very well" 3,426
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,943
Bengali 10,047
Speak English "very well" 6,569
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,478
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 13,475
Speak English "very well" 8,317
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,158
Other Indo-European Languages 12,358
Speak English "very well" 9,210
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,148
Telugu 9,671
Speak English "very well" 8,038
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,633
Tamil 4,933
Speak English "very well" 3,950
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 983
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 6,805
Speak English "very well" 5,479
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,326
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 75,431
Speak English "very well" 43,709
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 31,722
Japanese 6,725
Speak English "very well" 4,216
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,509
Korean 35,972
Speak English "very well" 18,175
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17,797
Hmong N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 22,009
Speak English "very well" 11,354
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,655
Khmer 1,457
Speak English "very well" 680
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 777
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 4,983
Speak English "very well" 2,377
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,606
Other Languages of Asia 9,336
Speak English "very well" 5,812
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,524
Tagalog (including Filipino) 32,685
Speak English "very well" 25,707
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,978
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 4,490
Speak English "very well" 2,637
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,853
Arabic 19,029
Speak English "very well" 13,533
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,496
Hebrew 5,871
Speak English "very well" 5,625
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 246
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 41,668
Speak English "very well" 28,854
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,814
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 54,653
Speak English "very well" 42,521
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,132
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 15,308
Speak English "very well" 11,802
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,506
Native Languages of North America 1,047
Speak English "very well" 809
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 238
Other and Unspecified Languages 18,514
Speak English "very well" 15,294
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,220
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 80.7%
Field 308 19.3%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 56.1%
Field 310 43.9%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 75.1%
Field 315 24.9%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 76.0%
Field 316 24.0%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 84.4%
Field 319 15.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 70.8%
Field 322 29.2%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 89.6%
Field 325 10.4%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 76.8%
Field 328 23.2%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 62.7%
Field 331 37.3%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 80.3%
Field 334 19.7%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 66.3%
Field 337 33.7%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 70.3%
Field 340 29.7%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 73.7%
Field 343 26.3%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 72.1%
Field 346 27.9%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 83.5%
Field 349 16.5%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 67.1%
Field 352 32.9%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 63.8%
Field 355 36.2%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 65.4%
Field 358 34.6%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 61.7%
Field 361 38.3%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 74.5%
Field 364 25.5%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 83.1%
Field 367 16.9%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 80.1%
Field 370 19.9%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 80.5%
Field 373 19.5%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 57.9%
Field 376 42.1%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 62.7%
Field 379 37.3%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 50.5%
Field 382 49.5%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 51.6%
Field 388 48.4%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 46.7%
Field 391 53.3%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 47.7%
Field 394 52.3%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 62.3%
Field 397 37.7%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 78.7%
Field 400 21.3%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 58.7%
Field 403 41.3%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 71.1%
Field 406 28.9%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 95.8%
Field 409 4.2%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 69.2%
Field 412 30.8%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 77.8%
Field 415 22.2%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 77.1%
Field 418 22.9%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 77.3%
Field 421 22.7%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 82.6%
Field 424 17.4%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 795,206
Less than high school diploma 19.0%
High school diploma or GED 18.8%
Some college or associate's degree 19.5%
Bachelor's degree 21.4%
Graduate or professional degree 21.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 38.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 20.0%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 66.6%
% change: 1990-2000 68.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 104.6%
% change: 1990-2000 82.5%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 451,578
Less than high school diploma 11.1%
High school diploma or GED 16.4%
Some college or associate's degree 22.1%
Bachelor's degree 25.7%
Graduate or professional degree 24.6%
Noncitizens (%) 343,628
Less than high school diploma 29.3%
High school diploma or GED 21.9%
Some college or associate's degree 16%
Bachelor's degree 15.7%
Graduate or professional degree 17.1%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,372,133
Less than high school diploma 7.3%
High school diploma or GED 25.5%
Some college or associate's degree 26.9%
Bachelor's degree 22.0%
Graduate or professional degree 18.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -48.2%
% change: 1990-2000 -23.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 46.3%
% change: 1990-2000 25.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 413,130
Less than high school diploma 21.9%
High school diploma or GED 17.7%
Some college or associate's degree 20.2%
Bachelor's degree 19.4%
Graduate or professional degree 20.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 16.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 15.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,082,441
Less than high school diploma 15.4%
High school diploma or GED 27.9%
Some college or associate's degree 26.6%
Bachelor's degree 17.7%
Graduate or professional degree 12.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 247,691
Less than high school diploma 21.7%
High school diploma or GED 19.4%
Some college or associate's degree 22.2%
Bachelor's degree 17.8%
Graduate or professional degree 19.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 8.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 11.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,876,478
Less than high school diploma 21.5%
High school diploma or GED 28.7%
Some college or associate's degree 24.1%
Bachelor's degree 15.5%
Graduate or professional degree 10.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.