E.g., 03/04/2024
E.g., 03/04/2024
State Language Data - IN
 

Indiana

Language & Education
2022
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 412,090
Speak only English 19.2%
Speak English "very well" 38.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2022 115.4%
% change: 1990-2000 157.2%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 179,644
Speak only English 24.7%
Speak English "very well" 43.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 31.5%
Noncitizens 232,446
Speak only English 14.9%
Speak English "very well" 33.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,021,916
Speak only English 94.8%
Speak English ""very well"" 4.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -8.8%
% change: 1990-2000 12.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 182,751
Speak only English 21.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 33.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 44.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,475,067
Speak only English 96.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 96,004
Speak only English 31.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,051,908
Speak only English 96.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,170,343
Speak only English 1,035,467
Speak language other than English 134,876
Speak English "very well"
98,661
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
36,215
Speak Spanish 74,925
Speak English "very well"
53,988
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
20,937
Ages 18-64 4,106,237
Speak only English 3,649,435
Speak language other than English 456,802
Speak English "very well"
282,149
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
174,653
Speak Spanish 230,547
Speak English "very well"
134,540
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
96,007
65 and Older 1,157,426
Speak only English 1,104,386
Speak language other than English 53,040
Speak English "very well"
31,320
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
21,720
Speak Spanish 21,703
Speak English "very well"
12,402
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
9,301
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 88.5%
Speak language other than English 11.5%
Speak English "very well" 8.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.1%
Speak Spanish 6.4%
Speak English "very well" 4.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.8%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 88.9%
Speak language other than English 11.1%
Speak English "very well" 6.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.3%
Speak Spanish 5.6%
Speak English "very well" 3.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.3%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 95.4%
Speak language other than English 4.6%
Speak English "very well" 2.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.9%
Speak Spanish 1.9%
Speak English "very well" 1.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.8%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 6,434,006
Speak only English 5,789,288
Speak language other than English 644,718
Spanish 327,175
Speak English "very well" 200,930
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 126,245
French (Including Cajun) 19,818
Speak English "very well" 12,893
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,925
Haitian 9,525
Speak English "very well" 4,189
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,336
Italian 1,043
Speak English "very well" 855
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 188
Portuguese 5,631
Speak English "very well" 5,045
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 586
German 35,185
Speak English "very well" 27,884
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,301
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 33,174
Speak English "very well" 24,208
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,966
Russian 3,271
Speak English "very well" 2,312
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 959
Polish 6,684
Speak English "very well" 4,710
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,974
Other Slavic Languages 12,465
Speak English "very well" 8,463
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,002
Armenian 91
Speak English "very well" 91
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 3,311
Speak English "very well" 2,547
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 764
Gujarati 4,657
Speak English "very well" 3,716
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 941
Hindi 8,041
Speak English "very well" 7,413
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 628
Urdu 4,481
Speak English "very well" 3,525
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 956
Punjabi 14,501
Speak English "very well" 8,061
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,440
Bengali 2,333
Speak English "very well" 1,764
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 569
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 5,784
Speak English "very well" 4,591
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,193
Other Indo-European Languages 7,449
Speak English "very well" 5,605
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,844
Telugu 4,822
Speak English "very well" 3,714
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,108
Tamil 4,299
Speak English "very well" 4,183
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 116
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 1,814
Speak English "very well" 988
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 826
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 21,122
Speak English "very well" 10,369
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,753
Japanese 4,357
Speak English "very well" 2,450
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,907
Korean 6,734
Speak English "very well" 4,210
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,524
Hmong 92
Speak English "very well" 75
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17
Vietnamese 4,327
Speak English "very well" 2,304
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,023
Khmer 183
Speak English "very well" 176
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 2,346
Speak English "very well" 1,110
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,236
Other Languages of Asia 26,394
Speak English "very well" 12,231
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,163
Tagalog (including Filipino) 9,908
Speak English "very well" 6,388
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,520
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 2,421
Speak English "very well" 1,600
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 821
Arabic 11,940
Speak English "very well" 8,197
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,743
Hebrew 481
Speak English "very well" 333
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 148
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 5,711
Speak English "very well" 1,613
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,098
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 16,981
Speak English "very well" 13,478
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,503
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 12,654
Speak English "very well" 7,282
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,372
Native Languages of North America 389
Speak English "very well" 249
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 140
Other and Unspecified Languages 3,124
Speak English "very well" 2,378
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 746
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 90.0%
Field 308 10.0%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 61.4%
Field 310 38.6%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 65.1%
Field 315 34.9%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 44.0%
Field 316 56.0%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 82.0%
Field 319 18.0%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 89.6%
Field 322 10.4%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 79.2%
Field 325 20.8%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 73.0%
Field 328 27.0%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 70.7%
Field 331 29.3%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 70.5%
Field 334 29.5%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 67.9%
Field 337 32.1%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 100.0%
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 76.9%
Field 343 23.1%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 79.8%
Field 346 20.2%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 92.2%
Field 349 7.8%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 78.7%
Field 352 21.3%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 55.6%
Field 355 44.4%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 75.6%
Field 358 24.4%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 79.4%
Field 361 20.6%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 75.2%
Field 364 24.8%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 77.0%
Field 367 23.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 97.3%
Field 370 2.7%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 54.5%
Field 373 45.5%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 49.1%
Field 376 50.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 56.2%
Field 379 43.8%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 62.5%
Field 382 37.5%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 81.5%
Field 385 18.5%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 53.2%
Field 388 46.8%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 96.2%
Field 391 3.8%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 47.3%
Field 394 52.7%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 46.3%
Field 397 53.7%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 64.5%
Field 400 35.5%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 66.1%
Field 403 33.9%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 68.7%
Field 406 31.3%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 69.2%
Field 409 30.8%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 28.2%
Field 412 71.8%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 79.4%
Field 415 20.6%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 57.5%
Field 418 42.5%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 64.0%
Field 421 36.0%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 76.1%
Field 424 23.9%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 335,452
Less than high school diploma 26.0%
High school diploma or GED 23.8%
Some college or associate's degree 16.9%
Bachelor's degree 16.7%
Graduate or professional degree 16.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 19.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.2%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2022 92.3%
% change: 1990-2000 78.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2022 158.0%
% change: 1990-2000 81.9%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 155,506
Less than high school diploma 19.2%
High school diploma or GED 22.5%
Some college or associate's degree 21.1%
Bachelor's degree 17.8%
Graduate or professional degree 19.4%
Noncitizens (%) 179,946
Less than high school diploma 31.9%
High school diploma or GED 25%
Some college or associate's degree 13.3%
Bachelor's degree 15.7%
Graduate or professional degree 14.1%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,249,008
Less than high school diploma 8.5%
High school diploma or GED 32.8%
Some college or associate's degree 29.4%
Bachelor's degree 19.1%
Graduate or professional degree 10.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -44.9%
% change: 1990-2000 -20.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 77.0%
% change: 1990-2000 35.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 139,411
Less than high school diploma 32.6%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 15.9%
Bachelor's degree 14.7%
Graduate or professional degree 16.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 6.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 5.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,755,135
Less than high school diploma 17.5%
High school diploma or GED 37.9%
Some college or associate's degree 25.8%
Bachelor's degree 11.9%
Graduate or professional degree 6.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 81,108
Less than high school diploma 31.4%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 18.8%
Bachelor's degree 12.9%
Graduate or professional degree 16.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 3.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,409,029
Less than high school diploma 24.2%
High school diploma or GED 38.5%
Some college or associate's degree 22.0%
Bachelor's degree 9.0%
Graduate or professional degree 6.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2022 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, click here. For ACS methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Matthew Sobek, Daniel Backman, Annie Chen, Grace Cooper, Stephanie Richards, Renae Rogers, and Megan Schouweiler. IPUMS USA: Version 14.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2023. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V14.0​.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.