E.g., 06/12/2024
E.g., 06/12/2024
State Language Data - IL
 

Illinois

Language & Education
2022
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,802,120
Speak only English 11.9%
Speak English "very well" 40.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 47.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2022 3.6%
% change: 1990-2000 79.2%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 965,270
Speak only English 14.1%
Speak English "very well" 46.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39.4%
Noncitizens 836,850
Speak only English 9.4%
Speak English "very well" 33.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 56.8%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 10,105,701
Speak only English 87.6%
Speak English ""very well"" 10.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -14.4%
% change: 1990-2000 19.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,509,261
Speak only English 11.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 33.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 54.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 10,038,244
Speak only English 91.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 6.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 934,296
Speak only English 15.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 9,615,969
Speak only English 92.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 5.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 2,041,995
Speak only English 1,563,375
Speak language other than English 478,620
Speak English "very well"
388,143
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
90,477
Speak Spanish 321,789
Speak English "very well"
256,225
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
65,564
Ages 18-64 7,700,886
Speak only English 5,701,615
Speak language other than English 1,999,271
Speak English "very well"
1,253,599
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
745,672
Speak Spanish 1,167,529
Speak English "very well"
690,530
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
476,999
65 and Older 2,164,940
Speak only English 1,802,306
Speak language other than English 362,634
Speak English "very well"
147,328
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
215,306
Speak Spanish 149,490
Speak English "very well"
51,162
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
98,328
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 76.6%
Speak language other than English 23.4%
Speak English "very well" 19.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.4%
Speak Spanish 15.8%
Speak English "very well" 12.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.2%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 74.0%
Speak language other than English 26.0%
Speak English "very well" 16.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.7%
Speak Spanish 15.2%
Speak English "very well" 9.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.2%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 83.2%
Speak language other than English 16.8%
Speak English "very well" 6.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.9%
Speak Spanish 6.9%
Speak English "very well" 2.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 11,907,821
Speak only English 9,067,296
Speak language other than English 2,840,525
Spanish 1,638,808
Speak English "very well" 997,917
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 640,891
French (Including Cajun) 34,573
Speak English "very well" 25,541
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,032
Haitian 4,504
Speak English "very well" 3,034
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,470
Italian 27,939
Speak English "very well" 20,962
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,977
Portuguese 10,783
Speak English "very well" 7,578
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,205
German 24,463
Speak English "very well" 20,318
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,145
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 8,664
Speak English "very well" 5,708
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,956
Russian 39,587
Speak English "very well" 22,036
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17,551
Polish 168,680
Speak English "very well" 97,597
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 71,083
Other Slavic Languages 81,295
Speak English "very well" 50,227
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 31,068
Armenian 1,547
Speak English "very well" 1,200
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 347
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 9,077
Speak English "very well" 6,079
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,998
Gujarati 53,679
Speak English "very well" 34,114
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,565
Hindi 43,968
Speak English "very well" 35,364
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,604
Urdu 59,723
Speak English "very well" 44,597
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,126
Punjabi 8,850
Speak English "very well" 7,161
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,689
Bengali 9,257
Speak English "very well" 6,310
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,947
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 19,063
Speak English "very well" 13,423
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,640
Other Indo-European Languages 82,145
Speak English "very well" 53,724
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 28,421
Telugu 23,354
Speak English "very well" 19,519
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,835
Tamil 15,723
Speak English "very well" 13,882
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,841
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 21,549
Speak English "very well" 16,814
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,735
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 109,679
Speak English "very well" 56,290
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53,389
Japanese 13,946
Speak English "very well" 8,500
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,446
Korean 38,959
Speak English "very well" 18,629
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,330
Hmong 119
Speak English "very well" 55
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 64
Vietnamese 22,907
Speak English "very well" 11,084
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,823
Khmer 2,695
Speak English "very well" 1,060
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,635
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 9,100
Speak English "very well" 4,445
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,655
Other Languages of Asia 16,821
Speak English "very well" 9,736
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,085
Tagalog (including Filipino) 88,061
Speak English "very well" 64,966
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 23,095
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 9,562
Speak English "very well" 7,504
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,058
Arabic 74,284
Speak English "very well" 54,920
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,364
Hebrew 5,514
Speak English "very well" 4,875
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 639
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 20,150
Speak English "very well" 11,535
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,615
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 26,600
Speak English "very well" 21,308
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,292
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 8,310
Speak English "very well" 6,044
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,266
Native Languages of North America 1,010
Speak English "very well" 1,000
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10
Other and Unspecified Languages 5,577
Speak English "very well" 4,014
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,563
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 76.1%
Field 308 23.9%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 60.9%
Field 310 39.1%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 73.9%
Field 315 26.1%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 67.4%
Field 316 32.6%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 75.0%
Field 319 25.0%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 70.3%
Field 322 29.7%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 83.1%
Field 325 16.9%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 65.9%
Field 328 34.1%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 55.7%
Field 331 44.3%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 57.9%
Field 334 42.1%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 61.8%
Field 337 38.2%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 77.6%
Field 340 22.4%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 67.0%
Field 343 33.0%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 63.6%
Field 346 36.4%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 80.4%
Field 349 19.6%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 74.7%
Field 352 25.3%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 80.9%
Field 355 19.1%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 68.2%
Field 358 31.8%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 70.4%
Field 361 29.6%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 65.4%
Field 364 34.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 83.6%
Field 367 16.4%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 88.3%
Field 370 11.7%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 78.0%
Field 373 22.0%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 51.3%
Field 376 48.7%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 60.9%
Field 379 39.1%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 47.8%
Field 382 52.2%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 46.2%
Field 385 53.8%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 48.4%
Field 388 51.6%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 39.3%
Field 391 60.7%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 48.8%
Field 394 51.2%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 57.9%
Field 397 42.1%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 73.8%
Field 400 26.2%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 78.5%
Field 403 21.5%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 73.9%
Field 406 26.1%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 88.4%
Field 409 11.6%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 57.2%
Field 412 42.8%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 80.1%
Field 415 19.9%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 72.7%
Field 418 27.3%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 99.0%
Field 421 1.0%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 72.0%
Field 424 28.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,640,256
Less than high school diploma 23.9%
High school diploma or GED 22.5%
Some college or associate's degree 17.3%
Bachelor's degree 19.8%
Graduate or professional degree 16.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 47.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 18.2%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2022 -13.3%
% change: 1990-2000 43.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2022 97.7%
% change: 1990-2000 92.9%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 914,212
Less than high school diploma 18.4%
High school diploma or GED 20.9%
Some college or associate's degree 20.1%
Bachelor's degree 22.9%
Graduate or professional degree 17.7%
Noncitizens (%) 726,044
Less than high school diploma 30.8%
High school diploma or GED 24.4%
Some college or associate's degree 13.7%
Bachelor's degree 15.8%
Graduate or professional degree 15.2%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 7,052,583
Less than high school diploma 6.3%
High school diploma or GED 25.8%
Some college or associate's degree 30.0%
Bachelor's degree 23.1%
Graduate or professional degree 14.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -56.9%
% change: 1990-2000 -27.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 51.0%
% change: 1990-2000 29.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,198,341
Less than high school diploma 37.7%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 16.5%
Bachelor's degree 14.1%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 30.6%
Bachelor's degree or higher 14.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 6,766,503
Less than high school diploma 15.2%
High school diploma or GED 29.0%
Some college or associate's degree 29.6%
Bachelor's degree 16.9%
Graduate or professional degree 9.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 752,190
Less than high school diploma 41.9%
High school diploma or GED 19.8%
Some college or associate's degree 17.4%
Bachelor's degree 11.6%
Graduate or professional degree 9.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 18.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 10.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 6,522,360
Less than high school diploma 21.6%
High school diploma or GED 31.2%
Some college or associate's degree 26.1%
Bachelor's degree 13.8%
Graduate or professional degree 7.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2022 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, click here. For ACS methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Matthew Sobek, Daniel Backman, Annie Chen, Grace Cooper, Stephanie Richards, Renae Rogers, and Megan Schouweiler. IPUMS USA: Version 14.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2023. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V14.0​.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2018-2022 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2022 ACS.