E.g., 09/20/2021
E.g., 09/20/2021
State Language Data - HI
 

Hawaii

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 270,653
Speak only English 18.4%
Speak English "very well" 32.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 24.5%
% change: 1990-2000 29.7%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 160,106
Speak only English 21.3%
Speak English "very well" 33.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45.1%
Noncitizens 110,547
Speak only English 14.2%
Speak English "very well" 30.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 55.4%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,059,884
Speak only English 85.9%
Speak English ""very well"" 11.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -32.9%
% change: 1990-2000 -10.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 210,423
Speak only English 14.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 34.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 923,928
Speak only English 86.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 9.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 163,928
Speak only English 14.8%
"Speak English ""very well"" 34.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 859,404
Speak only English 86.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 8.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 214,852
Speak only English 167,888
Speak language other than English 46,964
Speak English "very well"
36,226
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
10,738
Speak Spanish 4,948
Speak English "very well"
4,327
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
621
Ages 18-64 846,215
Speak only English 600,679
Speak language other than English 245,536
Speak English "very well"
146,523
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
99,013
Speak Spanish 23,500
Speak English "very well"
17,824
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
5,676
65 and Older 269,470
Speak only English 191,461
Speak language other than English 78,009
Speak English "very well"
29,975
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
48,034
Speak Spanish 2,836
Speak English "very well"
2,030
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
806
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 78.1%
Speak language other than English 21.9%
Speak English "very well" 16.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.0%
Speak Spanish 2.3%
Speak English "very well" 2.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.3%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 71.0%
Speak language other than English 29.0%
Speak English "very well" 17.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 11.7%
Speak Spanish 2.8%
Speak English "very well" 2.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.7%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 71.1%
Speak language other than English 28.9%
Speak English "very well" 11.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 17.8%
Speak Spanish 1.1%
Speak English "very well" 0.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.3%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 1,333,252
Speak only English 978,908
Speak language other than English 354,344
Spanish 30,522
Speak English "very well" 22,909
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,613
French (Including Cajun) 3,307
Speak English "very well" 3,036
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 271
Haitian 242
Speak English "very well" 227
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15
Italian 1,134
Speak English "very well" 937
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 197
Portuguese 1,524
Speak English "very well" 1,147
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 377
German 3,016
Speak English "very well" 2,364
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 652
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 304
Speak English "very well" 285
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19
Russian 1,360
Speak English "very well" 876
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 484
Polish 522
Speak English "very well" 438
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 84
Other Slavic Languages 1,059
Speak English "very well" 759
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 300
Armenian 109
Speak English "very well" 99
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 548
Speak English "very well" 350
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 198
Gujarati 42
Speak English "very well" 35
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7
Hindi 711
Speak English "very well" 617
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 94
Urdu 60
Speak English "very well" 50
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10
Punjabi 70
Speak English "very well" 8
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 62
Bengali 30
Speak English "very well" 21
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 570
Speak English "very well" 300
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 270
Other Indo-European Languages 1,273
Speak English "very well" 1,055
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 218
Telugu 244
Speak English "very well" 56
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 188
Tamil 178
Speak English "very well" 178
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 100
Speak English "very well" 63
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 32,658
Speak English "very well" 12,773
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,885
Japanese 41,621
Speak English "very well" 23,261
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 18,360
Korean 19,204
Speak English "very well" 7,427
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,777
Hmong 29
Speak English "very well" 19
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10
Vietnamese 8,982
Speak English "very well" 2,757
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,225
Khmer 402
Speak English "very well" 261
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 141
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 4,445
Speak English "very well" 2,003
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,442
Other Languages of Asia 564
Speak English "very well" 358
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 206
Tagalog (including Filipino) 57,709
Speak English "very well" 30,482
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27,227
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 130,506
Speak English "very well" 71,782
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58,724
Arabic 661
Speak English "very well" 496
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 165
Hebrew 594
Speak English "very well" 570
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 24
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 172
Speak English "very well" 131
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 156
Speak English "very well" 156
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 164
Speak English "very well" 116
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 48
Native Languages of North America 169
Speak English "very well" 98
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 71
Other and Unspecified Languages 9,383
Speak English "very well" 7,743
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,640
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 73.4%
Field 308 26.6%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 75.1%
Field 310 24.9%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 91.8%
Field 315 8.2%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 93.8%
Field 316 6.2%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 82.6%
Field 319 17.4%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 75.3%
Field 322 24.7%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 78.4%
Field 325 21.6%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 93.8%
Field 328 6.3%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 64.4%
Field 331 35.6%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 83.9%
Field 334 16.1%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 71.7%
Field 337 28.3%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 90.8%
Field 340 9.2%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 63.9%
Field 343 36.1%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 83.3%
Field 346 16.7%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 86.8%
Field 349 13.2%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 83.3%
Field 352 16.7%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 11.4%
Field 355 88.6%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 70.0%
Field 358 30.0%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 52.6%
Field 361 47.4%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 82.9%
Field 364 17.1%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 23.0%
Field 367 77.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 100.0%
Field 370 N
Field 373 100%
Field 373 63.0%
Field 373 37.0%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 39.1%
Field 376 60.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 55.9%
Field 379 44.1%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 38.7%
Field 382 61.3%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 65.5%
Field 385 34.5%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 30.7%
Field 388 69.3%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 64.9%
Field 391 35.1%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 45.1%
Field 394 54.9%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 63.5%
Field 397 36.5%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 52.8%
Field 400 47.2%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 55.0%
Field 403 45.0%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 75.0%
Field 406 25.0%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 96.0%
Field 409 4.0%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 76.2%
Field 412 23.8%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 100.0%
Field 415 N
Field 418 100%
Field 418 70.7%
Field 418 29.3%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 58.0%
Field 421 42.0%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 82.5%
Field 424 17.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 239,699
Less than high school diploma 18.4%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 27.9%
Bachelor's degree 19.2%
Graduate or professional degree 7.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 58.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 19.2%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 -15.9%
% change: 1990-2000 4.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 69.6%
% change: 1990-2000 60.6%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 146,707
Less than high school diploma 17.5%
High school diploma or GED 25.6%
Some college or associate's degree 28.4%
Bachelor's degree 20.5%
Graduate or professional degree 8%
Noncitizens (%) 92,992
Less than high school diploma 19.9%
High school diploma or GED 29%
Some college or associate's degree 27.1%
Bachelor's degree 17.2%
Graduate or professional degree 6.9%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 756,969
Less than high school diploma 4.2%
High school diploma or GED 27.6%
Some college or associate's degree 32.4%
Bachelor's degree 23.0%
Graduate or professional degree 12.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -55.8%
% change: 1990-2000 -21.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 57.9%
% change: 1990-2000 26.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 180,186
Less than high school diploma 29.1%
High school diploma or GED 25.1%
Some college or associate's degree 24.8%
Bachelor's degree 15.6%
Graduate or professional degree 5.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 42.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 18.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 622,105
Less than high school diploma 11.6%
High school diploma or GED 29.4%
Some college or associate's degree 31.4%
Bachelor's degree 18.3%
Graduate or professional degree 9.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 134,279
Less than high school diploma 37.4%
High school diploma or GED 22.6%
Some college or associate's degree 22.4%
Bachelor's degree 12.9%
Graduate or professional degree 4.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 35.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 14.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 571,137
Less than high school diploma 16.1%
High school diploma or GED 30.5%
Some college or associate's degree 29.8%
Bachelor's degree 16.3%
Graduate or professional degree 7.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.