E.g., 03/05/2021
E.g., 03/05/2021

State Language Data - DC

District of Columbia

Language & Education
2018
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 96,962
Speak only English 31.0%
Speak English "very well" 38.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 30.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2018 -0.6%
% change: 1990-2000 38.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 44,224
Speak only English 40%
Speak English "very well" 39.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20.9%
Noncitizens 52,738
Speak only English 23.4%
Speak English "very well" 37.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39.2%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 560,003
Speak only English 92.1%
Speak English ""very well"" 6.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -14.4%
% change: 1990-2000 20.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 72,671
Speak only English 23.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 466,987
Speak only English 92.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 5.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 58,590
Speak only English 27.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 514,231
Speak only English 94.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 4.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 81,724
Speak only English 65,639
Speak language other than English 16,085
Speak English "very well"
10,415
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
5,670
Speak Spanish 11,999
Speak English "very well"
7,810
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
4,189
Ages 18-64 489,615
Speak only English 405,681
Speak language other than English 83,934
Speak English "very well"
57,310
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
26,624
Speak Spanish 38,546
Speak English "very well"
21,739
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
16,807
65 and Older 85,626
Speak only English 74,592
Speak language other than English 11,034
Speak English "very well"
6,460
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
4,574
Speak Spanish 4,532
Speak English "very well"
2,262
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,270
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 80.3%
Speak language other than English 19.7%
Speak English "very well" 12.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.9%
Speak Spanish 14.7%
Speak English "very well" 9.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.1%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 82.9%
Speak language other than English 17.1%
Speak English "very well" 11.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.4%
Speak Spanish 7.9%
Speak English "very well" 4.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.4%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 87.1%
Speak language other than English 12.9%
Speak English "very well" 7.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.3%
Speak Spanish 5.3%
Speak English "very well" 2.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 656,965
Speak only English 545,912
Speak language other than English 111,053
Spanish 55,077
Speak English "very well" 31,811
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 23,266
French (Including Cajun) 9,079
Speak English "very well" 6,658
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,421
Haitian 776
Speak English "very well" 701
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 75
Italian 1,544
Speak English "very well" 1,150
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 394
Portuguese 1,381
Speak English "very well" 1,381
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
German 2,288
Speak English "very well" 2,130
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 158
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 410
Speak English "very well" 410
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Russian 1,609
Speak English "very well" 1,270
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 339
Polish 509
Speak English "very well" 509
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Slavic Languages 1,895
Speak English "very well" 1,589
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 306
Armenian 147
Speak English "very well" 147
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 2,106
Speak English "very well" 1,703
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 403
Gujarati 340
Speak English "very well" 313
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27
Hindi 531
Speak English "very well" 531
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Urdu 424
Speak English "very well" 313
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 111
Punjabi N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Bengali 231
Speak English "very well" 231
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 301
Speak English "very well" 301
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Indo-European Languages 2,463
Speak English "very well" 2,304
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 159
Telugu N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Tamil 905
Speak English "very well" 905
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 361
Speak English "very well" 361
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 6,846
Speak English "very well" 4,091
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,755
Japanese 1,254
Speak English "very well" 1,043
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 211
Korean 1,713
Speak English "very well" 1,267
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 446
Hmong N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 920
Speak English "very well" 521
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 399
Khmer 99
Speak English "very well" 99
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 140
Speak English "very well" 89
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51
Other Languages of Asia 1,124
Speak English "very well" 588
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 536
Tagalog (including Filipino) 1,590
Speak English "very well" 636
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 954
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 427
Speak English "very well" 368
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 59
Arabic 2,942
Speak English "very well" 2,800
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 142
Hebrew 755
Speak English "very well" 755
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 7,028
Speak English "very well" 3,851
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,177
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 1,837
Speak English "very well" 1,358
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 479
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 605
Speak English "very well" 605
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Native Languages of North America N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other and Unspecified Languages 1,396
Speak English "very well" 1,396
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 83.1%
Field 308 16.9%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 57.8%
Field 310 42.2%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 73.3%
Field 315 26.7%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 90.3%
Field 316 9.7%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 74.5%
Field 319 25.5%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 100.0%
Field 322 N
Field 325 100%
Field 325 93.1%
Field 325 6.9%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 100.0%
Field 328 N
Field 331 100%
Field 331 78.9%
Field 331 21.1%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 100.0%
Field 334 N
Field 337 100%
Field 337 83.9%
Field 337 16.1%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 100.0%
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 80.9%
Field 343 19.1%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 92.1%
Field 346 7.9%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 100.0%
Field 349 N
Field 352 100%
Field 352 73.8%
Field 352 26.2%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 N
Field 355 N
Field 358 100%
Field 358 100.0%
Field 358 N
Field 361 100%
Field 361 100.0%
Field 361 N
Field 364 100%
Field 364 93.5%
Field 364 6.5%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 N
Field 367 N
Field 370 100%
Field 370 100.0%
Field 370 N
Field 373 100%
Field 373 100.0%
Field 373 N
Field 376 100%
Field 376 59.8%
Field 376 40.2%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 83.2%
Field 379 16.8%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 74.0%
Field 382 26.0%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 56.6%
Field 388 43.4%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 100.0%
Field 391 N
Field 394 100%
Field 394 63.6%
Field 394 36.4%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 52.3%
Field 397 47.7%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 40.0%
Field 400 60.0%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 86.2%
Field 403 13.8%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 95.2%
Field 406 4.8%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 100.0%
Field 409 N
Field 412 100%
Field 412 54.8%
Field 412 45.2%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 73.9%
Field 415 26.1%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 100.0%
Field 418 N
Field 421 100%
Field 421 N
Field 421 N
Field 424 100%
Field 424 100.0%
Field 424 N
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 82,859
Less than high school diploma 17.8%
High school diploma or GED 12.1%
Some college or associate's degree 11.6%
Bachelor's degree 21.2%
Graduate or professional degree 37.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 16.0%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2018 -16.6%
% change: 1990-2000 33.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2018 105.5%
% change: 1990-2000 37.6%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 40,523
Less than high school diploma 15.4%
High school diploma or GED 11.1%
Some college or associate's degree 13.1%
Bachelor's degree 21.2%
Graduate or professional degree 39.2%
Noncitizens (%) 42,336
Less than high school diploma 20.1%
High school diploma or GED 13.1%
Some college or associate's degree 10.1%
Bachelor's degree 21.2%
Graduate or professional degree 35.5%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 417,317
Less than high school diploma 6.0%
High school diploma or GED 17.5%
Some college or associate's degree 15.8%
Bachelor's degree 26.9%
Graduate or professional degree 33.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -62.2%
% change: 1990-2000 -32.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 102.9%
% change: 1990-2000 5.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 58,138
Less than high school diploma 30.4%
High school diploma or GED 14.3%
Some college or associate's degree 14.8%
Bachelor's degree 16.9%
Graduate or professional degree 23.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 21.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 15.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 326,528
Less than high school diploma 20.2%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 19.5%
Bachelor's degree 18.1%
Graduate or professional degree 20.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 45,019
Less than high school diploma 29.4%
High school diploma or GED 16.1%
Some college or associate's degree 16.4%
Bachelor's degree 15.9%
Graduate or professional degree 22.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 11.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 12.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 365,019
Less than high school diploma 26.8%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 18.5%
Bachelor's degree 15.8%
Graduate or professional degree 16.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2014-2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2018 ACS.