E.g., 12/06/2022
E.g., 12/06/2022
State Language Data - DC
 

District of Columbia

Language & Education
2019
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 84,627
Speak only English 27.4%
Speak English "very well" 39.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2019 -6.4%
% change: 1990-2000 38.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 41,552
Speak only English 33.4%
Speak English "very well" 40.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26.4%
Noncitizens 43,075
Speak only English 21.5%
Speak English "very well" 38.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39.9%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 575,859
Speak only English 92.3%
Speak English ""very well"" 6.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -26.2%
% change: 1990-2000 20.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 72,671
Speak only English 23.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 466,987
Speak only English 92.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 5.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 58,590
Speak only English 27.3%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 514,231
Speak only English 94.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 4.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 82,638
Speak only English 68,312
Speak language other than English 14,326
Speak English "very well"
11,439
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,887
Speak Spanish 10,586
Speak English "very well"
7,957
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,629
Ages 18-64 490,311
Speak only English 409,452
Speak language other than English 80,859
Speak English "very well"
54,719
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
26,140
Speak Spanish 43,386
Speak English "very well"
25,232
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
18,154
65 and Older 87,537
Speak only English 76,654
Speak language other than English 10,883
Speak English "very well"
5,730
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
5,153
Speak Spanish 4,767
Speak English "very well"
1,951
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,816
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 82.7%
Speak language other than English 17.3%
Speak English "very well" 13.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.5%
Speak Spanish 12.8%
Speak English "very well" 9.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.2%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 83.5%
Speak language other than English 16.5%
Speak English "very well" 11.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.3%
Speak Spanish 8.8%
Speak English "very well" 5.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.7%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 87.6%
Speak language other than English 12.4%
Speak English "very well" 6.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 5.9%
Speak Spanish 5.4%
Speak English "very well" 2.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.2%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: 1) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. 2) Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 647,643
Speak only English 536,214
Speak language other than English 111,429
Spanish 58,536
Speak English "very well" 34,593
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 23,943
French (Including Cajun) 8,516
Speak English "very well" 6,753
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,763
Haitian 910
Speak English "very well" 747
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 163
Italian 1,494
Speak English "very well" 1,325
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 169
Portuguese 1,636
Speak English "very well" 1,377
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 259
German 2,647
Speak English "very well" 2,472
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 175
Yiddish, Pennsylvania Dutch or Other West Germanic Languages 426
Speak English "very well" 426
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Russian 1,856
Speak English "very well" 1,511
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 345
Polish 375
Speak English "very well" 364
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11
Other Slavic Languages 1,378
Speak English "very well" 1,239
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 139
Armenian 252
Speak English "very well" 252
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Persian (including Farsi, Dari) 1,455
Speak English "very well" 1,156
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 299
Gujarati 409
Speak English "very well" 376
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33
Hindi 1,411
Speak English "very well" 1,320
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 91
Urdu 497
Speak English "very well" 482
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15
Punjabi 240
Speak English "very well" 240
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Bengali 468
Speak English "very well" 393
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 75
Nepali, Marathi, or Other Indic Languages 660
Speak English "very well" 512
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 148
Other Indo-European Languages 2,212
Speak English "very well" 2,038
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 174
Telugu 171
Speak English "very well" 150
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21
Tamil 270
Speak English "very well" 257
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13
Malayalam, Kannada, or Other Dravidian Languages 351
Speak English "very well" 351
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Chinese (including Mandarin, Cantonese) 5,050
Speak English "very well" 3,239
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,811
Japanese 901
Speak English "very well" 670
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 231
Korean 1,512
Speak English "very well" 1,168
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 344
Hmong N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Vietnamese 1,229
Speak English "very well" 573
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 656
Khmer 128
Speak English "very well" 106
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22
Thai, Lao, or Other Tai-Kadai Languages 144
Speak English "very well" 79
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 65
Other Languages of Asia 782
Speak English "very well" 588
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 194
Tagalog (including Filipino) 1,799
Speak English "very well" 1,068
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 731
Ilocano, Samoan, Hawaiian, or Other Austronesian Languages 401
Speak English "very well" 331
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 70
Arabic 2,472
Speak English "very well" 1,766
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 706
Hebrew 649
Speak English "very well" 615
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 34
Amharic, Somali, or Other Afro-Asiatic Languages 6,154
Speak English "very well" 2,859
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,295
Yoruba, Twi, Igbo, or Other Languages of Western Africa 2,327
Speak English "very well" 1,876
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 451
Swahili or Other Languages of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa 732
Speak English "very well" 508
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 224
Native Languages of North America 104
Speak English "very well" 92
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12
Other and Unspecified Languages 875
Speak English "very well" 832
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 43
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 82.8%
Field 308 17.2%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 59.1%
Field 310 40.9%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 79.3%
Field 315 20.7%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 82.1%
Field 316 17.9%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 88.7%
Field 319 11.3%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 84.2%
Field 322 15.8%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 93.4%
Field 325 6.6%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 100.0%
Field 328 N
Field 331 100%
Field 331 81.4%
Field 331 18.6%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 97.1%
Field 334 2.9%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 89.9%
Field 337 10.1%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 100.0%
Field 340 N
Field 343 100%
Field 343 79.5%
Field 343 20.5%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 91.9%
Field 346 8.1%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 93.6%
Field 349 6.4%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 97.0%
Field 352 3.0%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 100.0%
Field 355 N
Field 358 100%
Field 358 84.0%
Field 358 16.0%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 77.6%
Field 361 22.4%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 92.1%
Field 364 7.9%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 87.7%
Field 367 12.3%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 95.2%
Field 370 4.8%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 100.0%
Field 373 N
Field 376 100%
Field 376 64.1%
Field 376 35.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 74.4%
Field 379 25.6%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 77.2%
Field 382 22.8%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 N
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 46.6%
Field 388 53.4%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 82.8%
Field 391 17.2%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 54.9%
Field 394 45.1%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 75.2%
Field 397 24.8%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 59.4%
Field 400 40.6%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 82.5%
Field 403 17.5%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 71.4%
Field 406 28.6%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 94.8%
Field 409 5.2%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 46.5%
Field 412 53.5%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 80.6%
Field 415 19.4%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 69.4%
Field 418 30.6%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 88.5%
Field 421 11.5%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 95.1%
Field 424 4.9%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 73,839
Less than high school diploma 15.7%
High school diploma or GED 12.6%
Some college or associate's degree 15.4%
Bachelor's degree 21.1%
Graduate or professional degree 35.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 28.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 13.8%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2019 -34.5%
% change: 1990-2000 33.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2019 76.4%
% change: 1990-2000 37.6%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 38,353
Less than high school diploma 10.9%
High school diploma or GED 15.1%
Some college or associate's degree 17.6%
Bachelor's degree 24.8%
Graduate or professional degree 31.6%
Noncitizens (%) 35,486
Less than high school diploma 20.8%
High school diploma or GED 10%
Some college or associate's degree 13%
Bachelor's degree 17%
Graduate or professional degree 39.2%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 431,306
Less than high school diploma 6.9%
High school diploma or GED 16.4%
Some college or associate's degree 16.5%
Bachelor's degree 26.5%
Graduate or professional degree 33.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -55.0%
% change: 1990-2000 -32.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 107.7%
% change: 1990-2000 5.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 58,138
Less than high school diploma 30.4%
High school diploma or GED 14.3%
Some college or associate's degree 14.8%
Bachelor's degree 16.9%
Graduate or professional degree 23.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 21.2%
Bachelor's degree or higher 15.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 326,528
Less than high school diploma 20.2%
High school diploma or GED 22.1%
Some college or associate's degree 19.5%
Bachelor's degree 18.1%
Graduate or professional degree 20.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 45,019
Less than high school diploma 29.4%
High school diploma or GED 16.1%
Some college or associate's degree 16.4%
Bachelor's degree 15.9%
Graduate or professional degree 22.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 11.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 12.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 365,019
Less than high school diploma 26.8%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 18.5%
Bachelor's degree 15.8%
Graduate or professional degree 16.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2019 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0.

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS. 
  • For “Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)”: Data for Alaska, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2015-2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2019 ACS.