E.g., 10/28/2021
E.g., 10/28/2021
Country Resource - Germany

Germany

DE
  • Population....................................................................... 79,903,481 (July 2021 est.)
  • Population growth rate ................................................................ -0.21% (2021 est.)
  • Birth rate....................................................... 8.63 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
  • Death rate................................................. 12.22 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
  • Net migration rate................................ 1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
  • Ethnic groups*.................... German 87.2%, Turkish 1.8%, Polish 1%, Syrian 1%, other 9% (2017 est.)

* Data represent population by nationality

CIA World Factbook

BerlinSeesSyria ekvidi Flickr

Although long one of the world's top migrant destinations, only in the recent past has Germany come to acknowledge and adjust to its role as a country of immigration. Its welcoming approach—a relatively new development—has been put to the test amid massive humanitarian inflows beginning in 2015. This country profile examines Germany's history on immigration and highlights current and emerging debates.

Recent Activity

With reforms to its 2005 immigrant integration law and the unveiling of a National Integration Plan, Germany expects to improve integration and come closer to the European Union's Common Basic Principles on immigrant integration. MPI's Eric Leise reports.

Approximately 50,000 of Germany's 170,000 tolerated asylum seekers are expected to will qualify for a residency permit under a law passed in March 2007. MPI's Eric Leise reports.

Only recently have European politicians and public opinion leaders talked about the need to focus on the integration of immigrants and their children.

Schengen eliminated border controls between European countries, and established a common external border. MPI's Julia Gelatt explains the changes brought by Schengen and the effects Schengen has had on European border control, visa, and asylum policies.

For years, Germany has been concerned about losing its top minds to the United States. While highly skilled individuals are leaving for the U.S., most of the increase is accounted for by temporary migrants, as Claudia Diehl of the German Federal Institute for Population Research and MPI's David Dixon reveal.

Rainer Münz of the Hamburg Institute of International Economics analyzes Germany's long-awaited immigration law.

gm map

Since the 1990s, analysts have pointed to Germany's ongoing need for immigrants to bolster economic development and maintain a dynamic workforce, given the rapid aging of the country's population. However, a process of policy review that began in 2001 with a government commission's report on immigration and integration policy only recently overcame legislative gridlock.

The number of ethnic Germans born abroad who immigrated to their ancestral homeland in 2003 was much lower than the previous year, reports Veysel Oezcan of Humboldt University Berlin.
Veysel Oezcan of Humboldt University Berlin reports on a key ruling affecting integration, religious freedom, and educators.
Veysel Oezcan of Humboldt University Berlin reports on how fewer foreign residents of Germany are obtaining citizenship under the provisions of a citizenship law passed in 2000.

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Coverthumb CivicEducationDiverseSocieties
Reports
February 2018

Across Europe, civic education programs are being asked to solve a range of social challenges—from dwindling political participation to the protection of immigrant and refugee youth from alienation and radicalization. While these challenges are shared across countries, the programs designed to address them vary considerably. This report explores differing models in Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

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Reports
November 2017

Amid ongoing Brexit negotiations, much remains uncertain for the roughly 1 million UK citizens living elsewhere in the European Union. This report offers a demographic profile of these Brexpats, considering what form an EU-UK deal on citizens’ rights might take and identifying key challenges many Britons are likely to face—including difficulty securing legal status and accessing labor markets, social security, and health-care systems.

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Reports
October 2016

A key question confronting German policymakers has been how to successfully integrate asylum seekers into the labor market after record numbers arrived in 2015. This report examines the challenges newcomers face in getting jobs at their skill level as well as accessing language and training courses. The report outlines the many integration initiatives created in Germany, and offers recommendations for greater effectiveness.

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Reports
June 2016

As immigrant-skeptic movements gained salience, and even political representation, in several European countries in recent years, Germany remained a relative outlier until mid-2015. This report explains how a pro-immigrant consensus evolved and persisted in Germany during the period from 2005—as the country emerged from recession and embarked on a reform of its immigration laws—through to the events of mid-2015.

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Reports
June 2016

This report sheds light on supplementary funding mechanisms targeted to migrant-background students in four countries—Canada, France, Germany, and the United States—and some of the key challenges and strategies decisionmakers face as they attempt to ensure that additional resources are used effectively to remedy the achievement gaps that immigrant and refugee students often confront.

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Reports
February 2016

This Transatlantic Council on Migration report describes how the migration of nationals between Germany and Turkey has developed over recent decades; examines the economic, social, and political factors behind this development; and discusses the policy implications and lessons that can be drawn.

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Reports
February 2015

While a number of major migrant-sending countries like Morocco and Turkey have started to take an active role in the integration of their migrants abroad, the role of subnational authorities has been overshadowed by diaspora engagement initiatives at the national level. This report investigates how the activities of origin countries' regional and local institutions may improve the lives of emigrants to Member States of the European Union.

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Reports
November 2014
This report is the final one in an MPI-International Labour Office series that examines the employment prospects of migrants in the EU (focusing on the case-study countries of the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom), as well as the effectiveness of integration and workforce development policies in helping these workers overcome barriers and ascend out of low-skilled work.
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Reports
October 2014
Against the backdrop of an aging population and shrinking labor force, German policymakers have been giving greater priority to policies that ensure that immigrants are able to make their way into middle-skilled work. This report assesses recent policy developments designed to facilitate the labor market advancement of new arrivals in Germany.
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Reports
August 2014

In contrast to other European countries, the idea of "mainstreaming" immigrant integration policy has not caught on among policymakers in Germany. This report explores the history and recent trends of integration policy in Germany as well as obstacles facing policymakers moving forward.

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