E.g., 10/25/2020
E.g., 10/25/2020

Country Resource - Canada

Canada

CA
  • Population........................................................................37,694,085 (July 2020 est.)
  • Population growth rate ..................................................................0.81% (2020 est.)
  • Birth rate....................................................10.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
  • Death rate..................................................7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
  • Net migration rate.................................5.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
  • Ethnic groups*.........Canadian 32.3%, English 18.3%, Scottish 13.9%, French 13.6%, Irish 13.4%, German 9.6%, Chinese 5.1%, Italian 4.6%, North American Indian 4.4%, East Indian 4%, other 51.6% (2016 est.)

Ethnic group noteL percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin

CIA World Factbook

Canada has long been a country of net immigration and has designed its current immigration policy around attracting highly educated and skilled migrants for entry into its labor force. In this country profile, Ashley Challinor discusses the challenges associated with this approach and provides a sense of the actual scale and nature of migration into Canada.

Recent Activity

Circular migration means a continuing, long-term pattern of international mobility. The European Union set up two pilot programs in 2008 that seek to facilitate this type of movement.

All the nuanced meanings of "belonging" describe integration trends in industrialized countries in 2007, including the United States, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Germany.

In response to an agricultural worker shortage over 40 years ago, Canada initiated a temporary migration program to brings workers from the Caribbean and later Mexico. But this "model" program also has its drawbacks, as Tanya Basok of the University of Windsor explains.

The U.S. Congress is considering a bill that includes a points system for permanent immigration. MPI's Demetrios G. Papademetriou outlines how points systems work, which countries have used them, their political benefits, and trends in points-system use.

The United States has been a destination for education and research for generations of foreign students and scholars. MPI's Jeanne Batalova explores why the country has become less dominant in the global education market in recent years.

Although most Central American refugees sought protection in the United States, Canada admitted thousands of Central American refugees in the 1980s. María Cristina García of Cornell University takes a detailed look at Central Americans in Canada

Many migratory streams from Central America — including refugees, economic migrants, and transit flows headed north from South America and elsewhere — have converged in North America since the 1980s. Sarah J. Mahler and Dusan Ugrina of Florida International University outline the region's main trends.

A steady stream of research since the 2001 census has highlighted the ways in which Canada is changing socially and demographically. In this updated profile, Brian Ray of the University of Ottawa examines debates over highly skilled migrants, the latest refugee numbers, and integration trends.

Audrey Kobayashi of Queen's University and Brian Ray of the University of Ottawa look at the likelihood of Americans leaving home in response to the recent elections.

MPI Policy Analyst Deborah Waller Meyers examines the Smart Border agreements signed by the U.S. with Canada and Mexico in the wake of the Sept. 11 attacks.

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Reports
February 2012

This report challenges the recent rhetoric and addresses the advancement of policy areas for countries, examining factors that impede or facilitate successful the implementation of multiculturalism. When these facilitating conditions are present, multiculturalism can be seen as a low-risk option, andhas worked well in such cases.  

Reports
October 2008

This report examines the advantages and disadvantages of two fundamentally different approaches to economic migrant selection—demand driven and employer led systems and human-capital-accumulation focused and government led systems, best illustrated by “points systems,” which apportion numerical values to desirable human-capital characteristics.

Reports
September 2005

This volume of essays looks at the education and immigrant integration efforts in both the United States and Canada.

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