Friedrich Heckmann is Professor emeritus of sociology and Director of the European Forum for Migration Studies at the University of Bamberg. He was a Professor of sociology at the Hamburg School of Economics and Political Science between 1982 and 1992. Since 1992, he has been a professor at the University of Bamberg.
His main research interests are in the areas of migration, interethnic relations, integration of migrants, socialization, Germany’s social structure, and sociological theory. He has served as a policy adviser and expert consultant on migration and integration for the European Union, the German Parliament and federal government, state and city governments, and nongovernmental organizations. His most recent book is Integration von Migranten. Einwanderung und neue Nationenbildung (Wiesbaden: Springer Verlag, 2015).
Dr. Heckmann studied sociology, history, and economics at the universities of Münster, Kiel, Kansas-Lawrence (USA), and Erlangen-Nürnberg. He received an M.A. in sociology from the University of Kansas in Lawrence in 1967 and his Ph.D. from the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg in 1972, where he worked as an assistant and researcher.
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As immigrant-skeptic movements gained salience, and even political representation, in several European countries in recent years, Germany remained a relative outlier until mid-2015. This report explains how a pro-immigrant consensus evolved and persisted in Germany during the period from 2005—as the country emerged from recession and embarked on a reform of its immigration laws—through to the events of mid-2015.