This extraordinary meeting of the Transatlantic Council on Migration, initiated by the German Federal Ministry of the Interior and the Bertelsmann Stiftung, was called to analyze specific aspects of diversity and social cohesion in a transatlantic perspective. The deliberations of the Council were discussed with the German Minister of the Interior, Dr. Wolfgang Schäuble, and presented to a broader public during an expert conference on integration at the local level. The issue was examined through the lenses of social mobility and education, with a particular emphasis on second-generation immigrants. The goal was to help political leaders identify effective practices and policies that advance the integration of immigrants and their descendants, which will have a positive and enduring impact on social cohesion in society. The Council Conclusions can be found here.
The Social Mobility of Immigrants and Their Children
Transatlantic Council Convenor and MPI President Demetrios G. Papademetriou, Will Somerville, and Madeleine Sumption examine social mobility, which is essential to immigrant integration. First-generation immigrants in Europe and the United States typically experience downward mobility largely because of four factors: language barriers, differences in educational attainment, difficulties obtaining recognition for credentials and experience gained abroad, and problems accessing opportunities through social networks and other recruitment channels. The second generation improves substantially on its parents’ generation. This improvement is insufficient, however, to allow all groups to catch up with the children of natives. This paper examines some immigration and educational policy interventions that could improve integration.
The Second Generation in Europe: Education and the Transition to the Labor Market
In this report, authors Maurice Crul and Jens Schneider examine the findings of The Integration of the European Second Generation (TIES) survey with respect to educational and labor market outcomes for second-generation Turks across 13 cities in seven European countries. Among the survey’s findings: There is a direct relationship between the educational attainment of children of immigrants and the years they are able to spend with peers who have native-born parents.
Education, Diversity, and the Second Generation: A Discussion Guide
The discussion guide, written by Michael Fix and Margie McHugh, Co-Directors of MPI’s National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, offers a brief demographic and statistical profile of the immigrant student population in the United States, with comparison points drawn to Germany where the data permit. The guide sketches broad policy implications of the demographic data and offers up for discussion a set of policy and practice issues in two areas: early childhood care and education, and secondary instruction of first- and second-generation students, with a focus on those whose proficiency in English or German lags.
This fourth book of the Transatlantic Council on Migration, published by the Bertelsmann Stiftung, takes stock of the impact of the global economic crisis on immigrant integration in Europe and the United States. It assesses where immigrants have lost ground, using evidence such as employment rates, levels of funding for educational programs, trends toward protectionism, and public opinion, focusing on the case studies of five countries in particular: the United States, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United Kingdom. This systematic look at where and how immigrants have been affected by the recession's pinch permits examination of how governments can use the recovery period as an opportunity for more meaningful and targeted investments in integration – ones that will boost economic competitiveness and improve social cohesion. To order a copy, click here.
Director of Communications, MPI
North American migration, European migration, temporary and high-skilled
workers, labor migration, citizenship, border management, remittances
European migration, EU integration policy
European migration, EU integration policy
European migration, UK immigration policy
Early Education for Immigrant Children
By Paul Leseman, Utrecht University
The report looks at factors that create educational disadvantages among children of immigrants, including socioeconomic and psychological risks and lack of cognitive stimulation at home. The author finds that while early education can improve the educational and socioeconomic position of low-income and minority communities, the program's design is fundamental to its success.
Language Policies and Practices for Helping Immigrants and Second-Generation Students Succeed
By Gayle Christensen, Urban Institute, and Petra Stanat, Free University of Berlin
The authors draw on the results of a unique survey of school language policies and practices to close the achievement gap in 14 immigrant-receiving countries, finding that countries where immigrant and second-generation students succeed tend to have long-standing language support programs, for both primary and secondary students, with clearly defined goals and standards.
Pathways to Success for the Children of Immigrants
By Maurice Crul, University of Amsterdam
This report examines how the children of Turkish immigrants, the largest immigrant group in Europe, are faring across the continent. The author finds disparities across countries in the age at which children start school, the number who drop out of secondary school, and the number of youth who are unemployed. He notes that, because immigrant students tend to start school at a linguistic and cultural disadvantage, compelling them to choose either an academic or vocational education "track" too early may relegate them to a less enriching education.