South America has been experiencing significant changes in migration flows within the last decade, with more movement within the region, chiefly for labor reasons, and a decline in emigration beyond the region as a result of improving South American economies and reduced prospects elsewhere. Argentina, Brazil, and Chile have attracted the most significant regional migration, with Brazil the preferred destination for migration from outside the continent. Migration beyond South America is chiefly to the United States and Europe. The articles offered here sketch the dynamism of South America's migration trends and policies.
This country profile analyzes Ecuador's migration trends and examines how remittances and return migration have become an important policy focus for a country with an estimated 1.5 million to 2 million nationals living abroad, chiefly in the United States, Spain, and Italy. As waves of emigration occurred, the country also has experienced significant inflows of refugees and economic and lifestyle migrants.
South America's largest country has experienced waves of immigration and, more recently, emigration. But Brazil has not proactively addressed new migration patterns, including increases in illegal immigrants. Ernesto Friedrich Amaral of the University of Texas at Austin and Wilson Fusco of Universidade Estadual de Campinas report.
Over half a million Colombians abandon their homes every year as a result of the country's long-running internal strife, creating a flood of internally displaced persons. Hiram Ruiz of the U.S. Committee on Refugees analyzes the roots of the crisis and the difficulties ahead.