Middle East & North Africa
Middle East & North Africa
Lebanon's 15-year civil war, which ended in 1990, forced hundreds of thousands of Lebanese to flee to other countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, and Brazil. Although this summer's fighting between Hezbollah forces in Lebanon and Israel lasted just over a month (July 12 to August 14), the conflict essentially wiped out 15 years of postwar reconstruction and development and displaced an estimated one million Lebanese, according to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
This report provides a global look at circular migration experiences, depicts various governments’ attempts at creating circular migration, evaluates the economic costs and benefits of circular migration for sending and receiving countries, identifies components of effective bilateral agreements, and reviews outcomes governments might realistically expect from their circular migration policies.
This brief takes a look at hometown associations (HTAs)—immigrant organizations based on a common hometown—and their often overlooked function as integration intermediaries in their country of destination.
More than half of all the states in the world, countries of immigration as well as emigration, now tolerate some form or element of dual citizenship. This report goes beyond statistical trends to the heart of these changes and how best to think through the policy answers.
The situation in Iraq remains extremely precarious for civilians, with additional thousands being displaced by violence and persecution even as refuge becomes harder to find – either internally or in neighboring countries. This report looks at the refugee situation in the country.
This report identifies features of remittances that make them ideal leveraging agents for poverty reduction and migration management agendas, and proposes a four-part international research and policy agenda for maximizing the development impact of international remittances.
This report draws from the existing body of knowledge surrounding circular migration to identify: research gaps, shortcomings of common policy routes, innovative circular migration policies, and critical considerations for policymakers seeking to design and implement positive circular migration schemes.
Previously confined to everyday conversations among migrants and their families, remittances are now on the minds of most governments, members of civil society, the international community, and, to some extent, the private sector. The continued deficiency in our understanding of some of the fundamental aspects of remittances is evident in current literature.
For an increasing number of scholars, international migration has undergone a transformation particularly in the last decade or so. Although circular migration’s impact on development is far from settled, a review of the current literature suggests increasing optimism about its developmental potential.