Many migratory streams from Central America — including refugees, economic migrants, and transit flows headed north from South America and elsewhere — have converged in North America since the 1980s. Sarah J. Mahler and Dusan Ugrina of Florida International University outline the region's main trends.
Over half of all Central American foreign born in the United States are from El Salvador and Guatemala. MPI's Megan Davy examines the numbers as well as events and policies that have shaped Central American migration.
Not long after the United States passed the 1980 Refugee Act, thousands of people began fleeing civil war in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. Their treatment in the United States, linked to U.S. foreign policy, spurred the Sanctuary Movement and efforts to grant them refugee status, as Susan Gzesh of the University of Chicago explains.
The growth of violent gangs such as MS-13, which operates in the United States and Central America, has caught the attention of the U.S. media and law enforcement. However, the role of migration policies in this growth deserves closer attention, finds MPI's Mary Helen Johnson.
Guatemala's long civil war, which spurred large flows of refugees, has given way to high levels of economic migration to the United States and an economy more dependent on remittances. Also, Guatemala’s geography has made it a prime transit country for migrants headed north, as James Smith of Inforpress Centroamericana reports.
Although most Central American refugees sought protection in the United States, Canada admitted thousands of Central American refugees in the 1980s. María Cristina García of Cornell University takes a detailed look at Central Americans in Canada
The Asian born accounted for more than a quarter of the total U.S. foreign-born population in 2000. MPI's David Dixon looks at the social and economic profiles of the foreign born from Eastern, Southeastern South Central and Western Asia.
The July 7, 2005, suicide bombings in London's transport system were carried out mainly by men born and raised in the United Kingdom. James Hampshire and Shamit Saggar of the University of Sussex explain how subsequent policy discussions are linking immigration issues to UK security concerns.
Of the 5.7 million children of immigrants under age 10 in the United States, 37 percent of them are of Mexican origin. Recent data shed light on their prospects for integration and social and economic mobility, according to Roger Waldinger of the University of California Los Angeles.
Perhaps best known for its brain drain and the related success of its diaspora, Ghana also has an important role in West African migration patterns, past and present. Micah Bump of Georgetown's Institute for the Study of International Migration takes a detailed look at a country in transition.
MPI’s Julia Gelatt reports on funding for immigration in Bush’s 2007 budget proposal, the State of the Union Address, upcoming immigration debate in the Senate, expedited removal along the northern border, and more.
In December, about 5,000 Australian youths gathered on one of Sydney’s major surf beaches and attacked men described as “Middle Easterners.” Christine Inglis of the University of Sydney looks at the violence and the government response, and assesses the integration of Lebanese-Australians.
Border control has evolved from a low-tech, one-agency exercise focused strictly on the Southwestern border to a far broader concept. MPI's Deborah Waller Meyers provides a detailed look at border-enforcement strategies and policies since the 1980s.
Since its independence in 1991, Ukraine has expanded immigration and emigration rights – but it has also become a neighbor of the expanded European Union, a crossroads for illegal migration, and fertile ground for human traffickers. Olena Malynovksa of the National Institute for International Security Problems in Kyiv reports.
An estimated 8.1 million Filipinos — nearly 10 percent of the country's population — are living in close to 200 countries and territories. Maruja M.B. Asis of the Scalabrini Migration Center-Philippines explains how the country developed its emigration policies and measures to protect its citizens abroad.
At its most basic, citizenship refers to membership conferred by a state. Greta Gilbertson of Fordham University outlines the many citizenship models and looks at the recent growth of multiple, supranational, and quasi-citizenship.
The post-Katrina migration of Mexican and other Latin American migrants to the southern Gulf States is the continuation of a trend that began in the early 1990s. Katharine Donato and Shirin Hakimzadeh of Rice University detail the region's past and present immigration patterns.