E.g., 10/23/2014
E.g., 10/23/2014

State Workforce Data - CA

California

Workforce
2012
2000
1990
Civilian Labor Force

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 9,927,061
% in the civilian labor force 65.6%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 6,512,152
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 9.6%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 5,883,560
% change: 2000-2012 32.4%
% change: 1990-2000 27.1%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 19,957,922
% in the civilian labor force 62.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 12,413,827
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 12.3%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 10,894,501
% change: 2000-2011 6.0%
% change: 1990-2000 -1.8%
Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 8,187,028
% change: 2000-2011 58.9%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 4,826,121
% change: 1990-2000 8.0%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 4,442,292
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 17,422,707
% change: 2000-2011 63.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 11,012,905
% change: 1990-2000 6.6%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 10,280,858
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 5,771,610
% change: 2000-2011 66.5%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,836,722
% change: 1990-2000 8.9%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 3,495,724
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 16,974,486
% change: 2000-2011 65.6%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 11,127,561
% change: 1990-2000 5.9%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 10,474,055
   
   
Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Naturalized Citizens  
Population (16 and older) 4,832,644
% in the civilian labor force
64.7%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,126,721
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 7.8%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 2,881,452
Noncitizens  
Population (age 16 and older) 5,094,417
% in the civilian labor force
66.4%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,382,693
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force
11.3%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 3,002,108
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign-Born Workers by Period of Entry and Origin Foreign Born
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

5,769,106
% recent arrivals (i.e., arrived within the last 10 years)
25.1%
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

5,769,106
Born in Africa 1.7%
Born in Asia 35.7%
Born in Europe 5.8%
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 55.1%
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 1.1%
Born in Oceania 0.7%
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Occupations

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 5,883,560
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 28.7%
Service occupations 24.0%
Sales and office occupations 17.9%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 13.0%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 16.3%
% Foreign Born by Occupation  
All civilian workers 35.1%
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 27.3%
Service occupations 44.3%
Sales and office occupations 26.1%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 50.4%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 51.8%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 10,894,501
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 41.2%
Service occupations 16.3%
Sales and office occupations 27.4%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 6.9%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 8.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Industries

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 5,883,560
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 4.6%
Construction 7.1%
Manufacturing 13.5%
Wholesale trade 3.5%
Retail trade 9.5%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 4.7%
Information 1.8%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 4.7%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 12.7%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 17.2%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 11.0%
Other services (except public administration) 7.2%
Public administration 2.4%
% Foreign Born by Industry  
All civilian workers 35.1%
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 65.6%
Construction 42.4%
Manufacturing 47.7%
Wholesale trade 41.2%
Retail trade 29.6%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 36.1%
Information 22.2%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 26.1%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 34.9%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 28.8%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 38.0%
Other services (except public administration) 46.4%
Public administration 19.1%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 10,894,501
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 1.3%
Construction 5.2%
Manufacturing 8.0%
Wholesale trade 2.7%
Retail trade 12.2%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 4.5%
Information 3.4%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 7.2%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 12.8%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 23.0%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 9.7%
Other services (except public administration) 4.5%
Public administration 5.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Class of Worker

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) (%) 5,883,560
Private wage and salary workers 81.2%
Government workers 8.9%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 9.7%
Unpaid family workers 0.2%
U.S. Born
Class of Worker (civilian workers age 16 and older) (%) 10,894,501
Private wage and salary workers 75.5%
Government workers 16.5%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 7.8%
Unpaid family workers 0.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 25 and older)
 
 
Labor Force Participation by Language Spoken at Home Number
Total Population (native and foreign born) Age 25 and older 24,779,784
In labor force 16,352,048
Not in labor force 8,427,736
Speak only English 14,002,465
In labor force 9,027,111
Not in labor force 4,975,354
Speak Spanish 6,517,810
In labor force 4,568,568
Not in labor force 1,949,242
Speak other Indo-European languages 1,280,879
In labor force 816,080
Not in labor force 464,799
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 2,736,434
In labor force 1,781,967
Not in labor force 954,467
Speak other languages 242,196
In labor force 158,322
Not in labor force 83,874
%
Total Population (native and foreign born) age 25 and older 100%
  In labor force 66.0%
Not in labor force 34.0%
Speak only English 100%
  In labor force 64.5%
Not in labor force 35.5%
Speak Spanish 100%
  In labor force 70.1%
Not in labor force 29.9%
Speak other Indo-European languages 100%
  In labor force 63.7%
Not in labor force 36.3%
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 100%
  In labor force 65.1%
Not in labor force 34.9%
Speak other languages 100%
  In labor force 65.4%
Not in labor force 34.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Workers' Education and English Proficiency

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 25 and older) 5,404,371
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 1,711,015
% low educated of all workers
31.7%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 1,595,876
% high educated of all workers
29.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 2,971,894
% LEP among all workers
55.0%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers (age 25 and older) 8,999,623
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 408,548
% low educated of all workers
4.5%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 3,622,358
% high educated of all workers
40.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 170,730
% LEP among all workers
1.9%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Brain Waste

Note: The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Foreign Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*

Note: Estimates are based on our analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 ACS data.

 
Total civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+ 1,677,672
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
379,097

% of civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+

22.6%
U.S. Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*  
Total civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+ 3,815,941
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
657,018

% of all civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+

17.2%
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Bureau of the Census’ American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2012 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.
  • The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “Civilian Labor Force,” “Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status,” “Occupations,” “Industries,” “Class of Worker,”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and North Dakota and Wyoming data are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS.
  • For “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry” and “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth”: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.
  • Brain waste estimates are based on the Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 ACS data.