E.g., 09/04/2015
E.g., 09/04/2015

State Language Data - VA

Virginia

Language & Education
2013
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 942,621
Speak only English 18.0%
Speak English "very well" 43.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 38.4%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2013 52.6%
% change: 1990-2000 105.5%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

 
Naturalized citizens 475,515
Speak only English 22%
Speak English "very well" 49.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 28.5%
Noncitizens 467,106
Speak only English 14%
Speak English "very well" 37.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 48.4%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,808,180
Speak only English 94.4%
Speak English ""very well"" 4.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -21.6%
% change: 1990-2000 45.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 562,217
Speak only English 18.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,057,049
Speak only English 95.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 305,739
Speak only English 23.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,435,745
Speak only English 96.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,354,727
Speak only English 1,160,154
Speak language other than English 194,573
Speak English "very well"
165,846
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
28,727
Speak Spanish 105,844
Speak English "very well"
90,013
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
15,831
Ages 18-64 5,291,265
Speak only English 4,423,486
Speak language other than English 867,779
Speak English "very well"
528,996
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
338,783
Speak Spanish 381,607
Speak English "very well"
205,580
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
176,027
65 and Older 1,104,809
Speak only English 1,014,875
Speak language other than English 89,934
Speak English "very well"
43,310
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
46,624
Speak Spanish 21,247
Speak English "very well"
9,817
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
11,430
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 85.6%
Speak language other than English 14.4%
Speak English "very well" 12.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.1%
Speak Spanish 7.8%
Speak English "very well" 6.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.2%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 83.6%
Speak language other than English 16.4%
Speak English "very well" 10.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.4%
Speak Spanish 7.2%
Speak English "very well" 3.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.3%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 91.9%
Speak language other than English 8.1%
Speak English "very well" 3.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.2%
Speak Spanish 1.9%
Speak English "very well" 0.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 7,750,801
Speak only English 6,598,515
Speak language other than English 1,152,286
Spanish or Spanish Creole 508,698
Speak English "very well" 305,410
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 203,288
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 30,340
Speak English "very well" 23,848
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,492
French Creole 7,419
Speak English "very well" 5,657
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,762
Italian 10,532
Speak English "very well" 8,539
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,993
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 8,012
Speak English "very well" 5,796
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,216
German 27,740
Speak English "very well" 25,111
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,629
Yiddish N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other West Germanic Languages 4,491
Speak English "very well" 4,168
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 323
Scandinavian Languages 3,630
Speak English "very well" 3,340
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 290
Greek 5,191
Speak English "very well" 3,833
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,358
Russian 14,023
Speak English "very well" 8,781
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,242
Polish 3,075
Speak English "very well" 2,567
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 508
Serbo-Croatian 5,271
Speak English "very well" 3,912
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,359
Other Slavic Languages 4,931
Speak English "very well" 3,761
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,170
Armenian 982
Speak English "very well" 797
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 185
Persian 25,471
Speak English "very well" 17,693
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,778
Gujarati 10,649
Speak English "very well" 8,039
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,610
Hindi 22,097
Speak English "very well" 18,346
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,751
Urdu 28,672
Speak English "very well" 21,499
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,173
Other Indic Languages 38,503
Speak English "very well" 23,370
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,133
Other Indo-European Languages 12,409
Speak English "very well" 9,607
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,802
Chinese 55,157
Speak English "very well" 29,903
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 25,254
Japanese 9,525
Speak English "very well" 5,873
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,652
Korean 53,658
Speak English "very well" 25,565
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 28,093
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 7,266
Speak English "very well" 3,828
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,438
Hmong 52
Speak English "very well" 52
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Thai 5,359
Speak English "very well" 2,878
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,481
Laotian 1,640
Speak English "very well" 728
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 912
Vietnamese 48,202
Speak English "very well" 22,393
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 25,809
Other Asian Languages 39,254
Speak English "very well" 29,358
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,896
Tagalog 45,817
Speak English "very well" 32,024
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,793
Other Pacific Island Languages 5,510
Speak English "very well" 3,579
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,931
Navajo 42
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42
Other Native North American Languages 594
Speak English "very well" 501
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 93
Hungarian 1,185
Speak English "very well" 1,152
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33
Arabic 44,780
Speak English "very well" 30,913
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,867
Hebrew 1,439
Speak English "very well" 1,292
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 147
African Languages 58,761
Speak English "very well" 42,457
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,304
Other and Unspecified Languages 1,909
Speak English "very well" 1,582
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 327
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 85.1%
Field 308 14.9%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 60.0%
Field 310 40.0%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 78.6%
Field 315 21.4%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 76.3%
Field 316 23.7%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 81.1%
Field 319 18.9%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 72.3%
Field 322 27.7%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 90.5%
Field 325 9.5%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 N
Field 328 N
Field 331 100%
Field 331 92.8%
Field 331 7.2%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 92.0%
Field 334 8.0%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 73.8%
Field 337 26.2%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 62.6%
Field 340 37.4%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 83.5%
Field 343 16.5%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 74.2%
Field 346 25.8%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 76.3%
Field 349 23.7%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 81.2%
Field 352 18.8%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 69.5%
Field 355 30.5%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 75.5%
Field 358 24.5%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 83.0%
Field 361 17.0%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 75.0%
Field 364 25.0%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 60.7%
Field 367 39.3%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 77.4%
Field 370 22.6%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 54.2%
Field 373 45.8%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 61.7%
Field 376 38.3%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 47.6%
Field 379 52.4%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 52.7%
Field 382 47.3%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 53.7%
Field 388 46.3%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 44.4%
Field 391 55.6%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 46.5%
Field 394 53.5%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 74.8%
Field 397 25.2%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 69.9%
Field 400 30.1%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 65.0%
Field 403 35.0%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 N
Field 406 100.0%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 84.3%
Field 409 15.7%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 97.2%
Field 412 2.8%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 69.0%
Field 415 31.0%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 89.8%
Field 418 10.2%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 72.3%
Field 421 27.7%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 82.9%
Field 424 17.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 810,765
Less than high school diploma 19.1%
High school diploma or GED 19.8%
Some college or associate's degree 21.4%
Bachelor's degree 22.7%
Graduate or professional degree 16.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 23.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 16.0%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2013 45.7%
% change: 1990-2000 98.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2013 96.6%
% change: 1990-2000 108.3%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 434,821
Less than high school diploma 11.8%
High school diploma or GED 17.8%
Some college or associate's degree 24.9%
Bachelor's degree 26.3%
Graduate or professional degree 19.2%
Noncitizens (%) 375,944
Less than high school diploma 27.5%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 17.5%
Bachelor's degree 18.6%
Graduate or professional degree 14.2%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,750,459
Less than high school diploma 10.4%
High school diploma or GED 25.7%
Some college or associate's degree 28.4%
Bachelor's degree 20.8%
Graduate or professional degree 14.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -35.2%
% change: 1990-2000 -18.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 39.4%
% change: 1990-2000 36.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 445,592
Less than high school diploma 23.8%
High school diploma or GED 18.3%
Some college or associate's degree 21.2%
Bachelor's degree 20.4%
Graduate or professional degree 16.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 12.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 11.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,218,837
Less than high school diploma 18.0%
High school diploma or GED 26.7%
Some college or associate's degree 26.6%
Bachelor's degree 17.6%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 238,476
Less than high school diploma 22.4%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 24.0%
Bachelor's degree 18.2%
Graduate or professional degree 14.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,730,719
Less than high school diploma 24.9%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 24.3%
Bachelor's degree 15.1%
Graduate or professional degree 8.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Bureau of the Census’ American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2013 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.​
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS.