E.g., 09/24/2016
E.g., 09/24/2016

State Language Data - TX

Texas

Language & Education
2014
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,491,331
Speak only English 9.2%
Speak English "very well" 32.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2014 53.3%
% change: 1990-2000 98.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 1,576,650
Speak only English 14.6%
Speak English "very well" 43.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.1%
Noncitizens 2,914,681
Speak only English 6.3%
Speak English "very well" 26.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 67.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 20,519,239
Speak only English 76.6%
Speak English ""very well"" 18.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.7%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 1.8%
% change: 1990-2000 6.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,858,396
Speak only English 10.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 60.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 16,383,122
Speak only English 78.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 15.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,491,959
Speak only English 11.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 30.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 14,080,586
Speak only English 81.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 12.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 5,169,448
Speak only English 3,297,350
Speak language other than English 1,872,098
Speak English "very well"
1,393,783
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
478,315
Speak Spanish 1,671,052
Speak English "very well"
1,240,761
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
430,291
Ages 18-64 16,745,109
Speak only English 10,526,299
Speak language other than English 6,218,810
Speak English "very well"
3,542,980
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,675,830
Speak Spanish 5,154,577
Speak English "very well"
2,858,284
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,296,293
65 and Older 3,096,013
Speak only English 2,303,206
Speak language other than English 792,807
Speak English "very well"
344,433
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
448,374
Speak Spanish 639,650
Speak English "very well"
271,656
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
367,994
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 63.8%
Speak language other than English 36.2%
Speak English "very well" 27.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.3%
Speak Spanish 32.3%
Speak English "very well" 24.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.3%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 62.9%
Speak language other than English 37.1%
Speak English "very well" 21.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 16.0%
Speak Spanish 30.8%
Speak English "very well" 17.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 13.7%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 74.4%
Speak language other than English 25.6%
Speak English "very well" 11.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 14.5%
Speak Spanish 20.7%
Speak English "very well" 8.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 11.9%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 25,010,570
Speak only English 16,126,855
Speak language other than English 8,883,715
Spanish or Spanish Creole 7,465,279
Speak English "very well" 4,370,701
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,094,578
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 69,613
Speak English "very well" 56,807
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,806
French Creole 7,223
Speak English "very well" 5,530
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,693
Italian 14,374
Speak English "very well" 11,720
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,654
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 24,083
Speak English "very well" 17,981
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,102
German 62,885
Speak English "very well" 53,294
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,591
Yiddish 471
Speak English "very well" 130
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 341
Other West Germanic Languages 8,932
Speak English "very well" 8,481
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 451
Scandinavian Languages 5,684
Speak English "very well" 5,459
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 225
Greek 5,005
Speak English "very well" 4,140
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 865
Russian 24,747
Speak English "very well" 17,250
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,497
Polish 9,913
Speak English "very well" 8,220
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,693
Serbo-Croatian 7,503
Speak English "very well" 4,142
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,361
Other Slavic Languages 12,286
Speak English "very well" 9,877
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,409
Armenian 1,409
Speak English "very well" 896
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 513
Persian 25,011
Speak English "very well" 14,462
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,549
Gujarati 30,844
Speak English "very well" 20,878
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,966
Hindi 62,720
Speak English "very well" 49,181
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,539
Urdu 74,548
Speak English "very well" 53,753
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,795
Other Indic Languages 63,936
Speak English "very well" 41,424
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22,512
Other Indo-European Languages 13,255
Speak English "very well" 8,977
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,278
Chinese 160,863
Speak English "very well" 82,994
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 77,869
Japanese 13,828
Speak English "very well" 7,593
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,235
Korean 58,973
Speak English "very well" 31,074
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27,899
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 11,719
Speak English "very well" 7,015
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,704
Hmong 302
Speak English "very well" 302
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Thai 10,725
Speak English "very well" 5,373
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,352
Laotian 10,162
Speak English "very well" 5,042
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,120
Vietnamese 201,997
Speak English "very well" 81,869
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 120,128
Other Asian Languages 121,783
Speak English "very well" 82,371
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39,412
Tagalog 81,099
Speak English "very well" 60,739
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,360
Other Pacific Island Languages 21,875
Speak English "very well" 14,567
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,308
Navajo 1,558
Speak English "very well" 1,442
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 116
Other Native North American Languages 2,771
Speak English "very well" 2,599
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 172
Hungarian 2,732
Speak English "very well" 1,945
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 787
Arabic 69,729
Speak English "very well" 42,941
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26,788
Hebrew 5,562
Speak English "very well" 4,741
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 821
African Languages 116,012
Speak English "very well" 83,588
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 32,424
Other and Unspecified Languages 2,304
Speak English "very well" 1,698
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 606
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 64.5%
Field 308 35.5%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.5%
Field 310 41.5%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 81.6%
Field 315 18.4%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 76.6%
Field 316 23.4%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 81.5%
Field 319 18.5%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 74.7%
Field 322 25.3%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 84.7%
Field 325 15.3%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 27.6%
Field 328 72.4%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 95.0%
Field 331 5.0%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 96.0%
Field 334 4.0%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 82.7%
Field 337 17.3%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 69.7%
Field 340 30.3%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 82.9%
Field 343 17.1%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 55.2%
Field 346 44.8%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 80.4%
Field 349 19.6%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 63.6%
Field 352 36.4%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 57.8%
Field 355 42.2%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 67.7%
Field 358 32.3%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 78.4%
Field 361 21.6%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 72.1%
Field 364 27.9%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 64.8%
Field 367 35.2%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 67.7%
Field 370 32.3%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 51.6%
Field 373 48.4%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 54.9%
Field 376 45.1%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 52.7%
Field 379 47.3%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 59.9%
Field 382 40.1%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 50.1%
Field 388 49.9%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 49.6%
Field 391 50.4%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 40.5%
Field 394 59.5%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 67.6%
Field 397 32.4%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 74.9%
Field 400 25.1%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 66.6%
Field 403 33.4%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 92.6%
Field 406 7.4%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 93.8%
Field 409 6.2%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 71.2%
Field 412 28.8%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 61.6%
Field 415 38.4%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 85.2%
Field 418 14.8%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 72.1%
Field 421 27.9%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 73.7%
Field 424 26.3%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,853,153
Less than high school diploma 41.7%
High school diploma or GED 20.3%
Some college or associate's degree 15.3%
Bachelor's degree 13.2%
Graduate or professional degree 9.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 52.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 18.4%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2014 37.7%
% change: 1990-2000 85.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2014 136.0%
% change: 1990-2000 119.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 1,464,001
Less than high school diploma 26.4%
High school diploma or GED 19.6%
Some college or associate's degree 21.2%
Bachelor's degree 19.2%
Graduate or professional degree 13.6%
Noncitizens (%) 2,389,152
Less than high school diploma 51.1%
High school diploma or GED 20.8%
Some college or associate's degree 11.7%
Bachelor's degree 9.5%
Graduate or professional degree 7%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 13,234,735
Less than high school diploma 10.9%
High school diploma or GED 26.6%
Some college or associate's degree 33.3%
Bachelor's degree 19.6%
Graduate or professional degree 9.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -26.0%
% change: 1990-2000 -13.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 49.3%
% change: 1990-2000 35.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,162,235
Less than high school diploma 54.0%
High school diploma or GED 14.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.0%
Bachelor's degree 9.7%
Graduate or professional degree 7.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 12.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 10,620,896
Less than high school diploma 18.3%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 30.4%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 7.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,112,155
Less than high school diploma 56.6%
High school diploma or GED 13.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.2%
Bachelor's degree 8.6%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 22.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 9,186,460
Less than high school diploma 24.3%
High school diploma or GED 27.1%
Some college or associate's degree 27.6%
Bachelor's degree 14.4%
Graduate or professional degree 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2014 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS.