E.g., 09/24/2017
E.g., 09/24/2017

State Language Data - TX

Texas

Language & Education
2015
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,636,981
Speak only English 9.8%
Speak English "very well" 32.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2015 55.5%
% change: 1990-2000 98.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2015 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2015 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 1,671,154
Speak only English 15.1%
Speak English "very well" 44%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40.9%
Noncitizens 2,965,827
Speak only English 6.8%
Speak English "very well" 26.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 67.0%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 20,865,425
Speak only English 76.8%
Speak English ""very well"" 18.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 1.7%
% change: 1990-2000 6.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,858,396
Speak only English 10.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 60.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 16,383,122
Speak only English 78.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 15.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,491,959
Speak only English 11.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 30.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 14,080,586
Speak only English 81.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 12.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 5,242,076
Speak only English 3,380,093
Speak language other than English 1,861,983
Speak English "very well"
1,392,376
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
469,607
Speak Spanish 1,643,764
Speak English "very well"
1,225,001
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
418,763
Ages 18-64 17,038,823
Speak only English 10,709,340
Speak language other than English 6,329,483
Speak English "very well"
3,640,565
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,688,918
Speak Spanish 5,206,299
Speak English "very well"
2,922,189
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,284,110
65 and Older 3,221,507
Speak only English 2,385,585
Speak language other than English 835,922
Speak English "very well"
356,062
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
479,860
Speak Spanish 671,177
Speak English "very well"
284,402
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
386,775
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 64.5%
Speak language other than English 35.5%
Speak English "very well" 26.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.0%
Speak Spanish 31.4%
Speak English "very well" 23.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.0%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 62.9%
Speak language other than English 37.1%
Speak English "very well" 21.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 15.8%
Speak Spanish 30.6%
Speak English "very well" 17.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 13.4%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 74.1%
Speak language other than English 25.9%
Speak English "very well" 11.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 14.9%
Speak Spanish 20.8%
Speak English "very well" 8.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 12.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 25,502,406
Speak only English 16,475,018
Speak language other than English 9,027,388
Spanish or Spanish Creole 7,521,240
Speak English "very well" 4,431,592
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,089,648
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 72,224
Speak English "very well" 56,046
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,178
French Creole 7,970
Speak English "very well" 6,007
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,963
Italian 10,034
Speak English "very well" 7,286
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,748
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 29,331
Speak English "very well" 22,338
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,993
German 61,777
Speak English "very well" 52,467
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,310
Yiddish 1,384
Speak English "very well" 1,384
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other West Germanic Languages 11,304
Speak English "very well" 9,847
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,457
Scandinavian Languages 6,849
Speak English "very well" 5,642
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,207
Greek 6,032
Speak English "very well" 4,943
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,089
Russian 22,428
Speak English "very well" 14,761
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,667
Polish 8,665
Speak English "very well" 5,991
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,674
Serbo-Croatian 6,888
Speak English "very well" 4,352
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,536
Other Slavic Languages 9,937
Speak English "very well" 7,990
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,947
Armenian 1,778
Speak English "very well" 1,018
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 760
Persian 33,983
Speak English "very well" 21,292
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,691
Gujarati 30,221
Speak English "very well" 21,326
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,895
Hindi 79,557
Speak English "very well" 59,947
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,610
Urdu 81,528
Speak English "very well" 59,423
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 22,105
Other Indic Languages 70,247
Speak English "very well" 43,018
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27,229
Other Indo-European Languages 14,469
Speak English "very well" 11,448
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,021
Chinese 171,878
Speak English "very well" 87,989
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 83,889
Japanese 20,504
Speak English "very well" 10,446
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,058
Korean 52,770
Speak English "very well" 24,049
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 28,721
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 12,329
Speak English "very well" 7,048
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,281
Hmong 160
Speak English "very well" 105
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 55
Thai 9,995
Speak English "very well" 5,833
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,162
Laotian 10,441
Speak English "very well" 4,860
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,581
Vietnamese 206,267
Speak English "very well" 84,498
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 121,769
Other Asian Languages 136,091
Speak English "very well" 94,700
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41,391
Tagalog 83,556
Speak English "very well" 59,080
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 24,476
Other Pacific Island Languages 18,516
Speak English "very well" 13,819
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,697
Navajo 904
Speak English "very well" 785
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 119
Other Native North American Languages 2,355
Speak English "very well" 1,869
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 486
Hungarian 3,318
Speak English "very well" 2,777
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 541
Arabic 81,839
Speak English "very well" 52,231
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29,608
Hebrew 6,712
Speak English "very well" 5,911
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 801
African Languages 118,956
Speak English "very well" 83,211
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 35,745
Other and Unspecified Languages 2,951
Speak English "very well" 1,674
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,277
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 64.6%
Field 308 35.4%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.9%
Field 310 41.1%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 77.6%
Field 315 22.4%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 75.4%
Field 316 24.6%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 72.6%
Field 319 27.4%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 76.2%
Field 322 23.8%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 84.9%
Field 325 15.1%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 100.0%
Field 328 N
Field 331 100%
Field 331 87.1%
Field 331 12.9%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 82.4%
Field 334 17.6%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 81.9%
Field 337 18.1%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 65.8%
Field 340 34.2%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 69.1%
Field 343 30.9%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 63.2%
Field 346 36.8%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 80.4%
Field 349 19.6%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 57.3%
Field 352 42.7%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 62.7%
Field 355 37.3%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 70.6%
Field 358 29.4%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 75.4%
Field 361 24.6%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 72.9%
Field 364 27.1%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 61.2%
Field 367 38.8%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 79.1%
Field 370 20.9%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 51.2%
Field 373 48.8%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 50.9%
Field 376 49.1%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 45.6%
Field 379 54.4%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 57.2%
Field 382 42.8%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 65.6%
Field 385 34.4%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 58.4%
Field 388 41.6%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 46.5%
Field 391 53.5%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 41.0%
Field 394 59.0%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 69.6%
Field 397 30.4%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 70.7%
Field 400 29.3%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 74.6%
Field 403 25.4%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 86.8%
Field 406 13.2%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 79.4%
Field 409 20.6%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 83.7%
Field 412 16.3%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 63.8%
Field 415 36.2%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 88.1%
Field 418 11.9%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 70.0%
Field 421 30.0%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 56.7%
Field 424 43.3%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,990,229
Less than high school diploma 40.5%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 15.4%
Bachelor's degree 13.9%
Graduate or professional degree 9.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 52.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 18.9%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2015 38.6%
% change: 1990-2000 85.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2015 153.0%
% change: 1990-2000 119.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2015 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2015 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 1,543,808
Less than high school diploma 26.2%
High school diploma or GED 19.8%
Some college or associate's degree 21.2%
Bachelor's degree 19.4%
Graduate or professional degree 13.4%
Noncitizens (%) 2,446,421
Less than high school diploma 49.6%
High school diploma or GED 21.1%
Some college or associate's degree 11.8%
Bachelor's degree 10.4%
Graduate or professional degree 7.2%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 13,482,632
Less than high school diploma 10.8%
High school diploma or GED 26.7%
Some college or associate's degree 32.7%
Bachelor's degree 20.1%
Graduate or professional degree 9.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -25.2%
% change: 1990-2000 -13.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 54.9%
% change: 1990-2000 35.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,162,235
Less than high school diploma 54.0%
High school diploma or GED 14.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.0%
Bachelor's degree 9.7%
Graduate or professional degree 7.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 12.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 10,620,896
Less than high school diploma 18.3%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 30.4%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 7.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,112,155
Less than high school diploma 56.6%
High school diploma or GED 13.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.2%
Bachelor's degree 8.6%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 22.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 9,186,460
Less than high school diploma 24.3%
High school diploma or GED 27.1%
Some college or associate's degree 27.6%
Bachelor's degree 14.4%
Graduate or professional degree 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2015 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2015 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2015 ACS.