E.g., 07/02/2016
E.g., 07/02/2016

State Language Data - TN

Tennessee

Language & Education
2014
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 317,942
Speak only English 18.3%
Speak English "very well" 34.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 46.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2014 109.0%
% change: 1990-2000 394.4%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 115,051
Speak only English 29.1%
Speak English "very well" 43.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27.5%
Noncitizens 202,891
Speak only English 12.3%
Speak English "very well" 29.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.8%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,833,055
Speak only English 97.1%
Speak English ""very well"" 2.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -23.4%
% change: 1990-2000 29.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 155,547
Speak only English 20.1%
"Speak English ""very well"" 34.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,160,373
Speak only English 97.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 57,861
Speak only English 37.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 37.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 24.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,471,431
Speak only English 97.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 1.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,093,982
Speak only English 996,525
Speak language other than English 97,457
Speak English "very well"
77,676
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
19,781
Speak Spanish 67,798
Speak English "very well"
54,210
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
13,588
Ages 18-64 4,070,202
Speak only English 3,766,621
Speak language other than English 303,581
Speak English "very well"
158,798
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
144,783
Speak Spanish 167,693
Speak English "very well"
75,756
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
91,937
65 and Older 986,813
Speak only English 957,643
Speak language other than English 29,170
Speak English "very well"
16,361
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
12,809
Speak Spanish 9,056
Speak English "very well"
4,578
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
4,478
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 91.1%
Speak language other than English 8.9%
Speak English "very well" 7.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.8%
Speak Spanish 6.2%
Speak English "very well" 5.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.2%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 92.5%
Speak language other than English 7.5%
Speak English "very well" 3.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.6%
Speak Spanish 4.1%
Speak English "very well" 1.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.3%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 97.0%
Speak language other than English 3.0%
Speak English "very well" 1.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.3%
Speak Spanish 0.9%
Speak English "very well" 0.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 0.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 6,150,997
Speak only English 5,720,789
Speak language other than English 430,208
Spanish or Spanish Creole 244,547
Speak English "very well" 134,544
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 110,003
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 11,191
Speak English "very well" 9,528
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,663
French Creole 1,621
Speak English "very well" 1,219
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 402
Italian 3,058
Speak English "very well" 2,643
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 415
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 3,488
Speak English "very well" 2,543
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 945
German 14,564
Speak English "very well" 12,057
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,507
Yiddish N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other West Germanic Languages 5,948
Speak English "very well" 4,203
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,745
Scandinavian Languages 939
Speak English "very well" 899
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40
Greek 637
Speak English "very well" 637
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Russian 3,894
Speak English "very well" 2,942
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 952
Polish 1,316
Speak English "very well" 1,001
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 315
Serbo-Croatian 727
Speak English "very well" 537
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 190
Other Slavic Languages 1,308
Speak English "very well" 1,084
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 224
Armenian 315
Speak English "very well" 117
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 198
Persian 5,142
Speak English "very well" 3,029
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,113
Gujarati 4,473
Speak English "very well" 2,633
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,840
Hindi 4,214
Speak English "very well" 3,424
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 790
Urdu 3,216
Speak English "very well" 2,199
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,017
Other Indic Languages 6,535
Speak English "very well" 3,314
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,221
Other Indo-European Languages 7,158
Speak English "very well" 3,913
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,245
Chinese 13,600
Speak English "very well" 7,026
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,574
Japanese 5,710
Speak English "very well" 3,316
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,394
Korean 6,186
Speak English "very well" 3,082
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,104
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 2,052
Speak English "very well" 570
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,482
Hmong 368
Speak English "very well" 266
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 102
Thai 938
Speak English "very well" 472
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 466
Laotian 6,071
Speak English "very well" 3,296
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,775
Vietnamese 11,185
Speak English "very well" 4,153
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,032
Other Asian Languages 8,761
Speak English "very well" 5,738
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,023
Tagalog 9,336
Speak English "very well" 7,360
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,976
Other Pacific Island Languages 1,722
Speak English "very well" 1,079
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 643
Navajo 75
Speak English "very well" 75
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Native North American Languages 543
Speak English "very well" 543
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Hungarian 221
Speak English "very well" 105
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 116
Arabic 24,567
Speak English "very well" 13,936
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,631
Hebrew 206
Speak English "very well" 206
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
African Languages 13,567
Speak English "very well" 8,815
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,752
Other and Unspecified Languages 809
Speak English "very well" 331
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 478
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 93.0%
Field 308 7.0%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 55.0%
Field 310 45.0%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 85.1%
Field 315 14.9%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 75.2%
Field 316 24.8%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 86.4%
Field 319 13.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 72.9%
Field 322 27.1%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 82.8%
Field 325 17.2%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 N
Field 328 N
Field 331 100%
Field 331 70.7%
Field 331 29.3%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 95.7%
Field 334 4.3%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 100.0%
Field 337 N
Field 340 100%
Field 340 75.6%
Field 340 24.4%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 76.1%
Field 343 23.9%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 73.9%
Field 346 26.1%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 82.9%
Field 349 17.1%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 37.1%
Field 352 62.9%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 58.9%
Field 355 41.1%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 58.9%
Field 358 41.1%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 81.3%
Field 361 18.7%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 68.4%
Field 364 31.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 50.7%
Field 367 49.3%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 54.7%
Field 370 45.3%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 51.7%
Field 373 48.3%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 58.1%
Field 376 41.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 49.8%
Field 379 50.2%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 27.8%
Field 382 72.2%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 72.3%
Field 385 27.7%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 50.3%
Field 388 49.7%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 54.3%
Field 391 45.7%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 37.1%
Field 394 62.9%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 65.5%
Field 397 34.5%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 78.8%
Field 400 21.2%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 62.7%
Field 403 37.3%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 100.0%
Field 406 N
Field 409 100%
Field 409 100.0%
Field 409 N
Field 412 100%
Field 412 47.5%
Field 412 52.5%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 56.7%
Field 415 43.3%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 100.0%
Field 418 N
Field 421 100%
Field 421 65.0%
Field 421 35.0%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 40.9%
Field 424 59.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 259,982
Less than high school diploma 30.6%
High school diploma or GED 24.9%
Some college or associate's degree 16.6%
Bachelor's degree 15.7%
Graduate or professional degree 12.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 12.6%
Bachelor's degree or higher 6.5%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2014 138.3%
% change: 1990-2000 265.3%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2014 102.5%
% change: 1990-2000 119.8%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 100,026
Less than high school diploma 16.6%
High school diploma or GED 21.3%
Some college or associate's degree 25.5%
Bachelor's degree 20.1%
Graduate or professional degree 16.5%
Noncitizens (%) 159,956
Less than high school diploma 39.3%
High school diploma or GED 27.2%
Some college or associate's degree 11%
Bachelor's degree 12.9%
Graduate or professional degree 9.6%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,165,091
Less than high school diploma 13.2%
High school diploma or GED 33.8%
Some college or associate's degree 27.9%
Bachelor's degree 16.3%
Graduate or professional degree 8.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -36.9%
% change: 1990-2000 -14.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 49.1%
% change: 1990-2000 44.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 113,901
Less than high school diploma 29.3%
High school diploma or GED 19.4%
Some college or associate's degree 19.9%
Bachelor's degree 15.7%
Graduate or professional degree 15.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 3.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 4.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,630,845
Less than high school diploma 24.0%
High school diploma or GED 31.8%
Some college or associate's degree 24.9%
Bachelor's degree 12.7%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 45,984
Less than high school diploma 19.9%
High school diploma or GED 22.4%
Some college or associate's degree 22.3%
Bachelor's degree 18.2%
Graduate or professional degree 17.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 0.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 3.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,082,581
Less than high school diploma 33.0%
High school diploma or GED 30.3%
Some college or associate's degree 20.9%
Bachelor's degree 10.5%
Graduate or professional degree 5.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2014 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS.