E.g., 06/02/2016
E.g., 06/02/2016

State Language Data - MA

Massachusetts

Language & Education
2014
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,052,382
Speak only English 18.5%
Speak English "very well" 38.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 43.1%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2014 39.3%
% change: 1990-2000 45.6%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 553,311
Speak only English 22.5%
Speak English "very well" 41.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 36.4%
Noncitizens 499,071
Speak only English 14.1%
Speak English "very well" 35.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,327,059
Speak only English 89.0%
Speak English ""very well"" 8.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.1%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -14.9%
% change: 1990-2000 3.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 764,008
Speak only English 21.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,190,241
Speak only English 90.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 7.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 568,001
Speak only English 28.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,038,492
Speak only English 91.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 6.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,024,718
Speak only English 803,091
Speak language other than English 221,627
Speak English "very well"
181,348
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
40,279
Speak Spanish 106,198
Speak English "very well"
87,436
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
18,762
Ages 18-64 4,339,146
Speak only English 3,284,337
Speak language other than English 1,054,809
Speak English "very well"
632,576
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
422,233
Speak Spanish 405,510
Speak English "very well"
224,873
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
180,637
65 and Older 1,015,577
Speak only English 847,090
Speak language other than English 168,487
Speak English "very well"
63,757
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
104,730
Speak Spanish 36,427
Speak English "very well"
9,861
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
26,566
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 78.4%
Speak language other than English 21.6%
Speak English "very well" 17.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.9%
Speak Spanish 10.4%
Speak English "very well" 8.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.8%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 75.7%
Speak language other than English 24.3%
Speak English "very well" 14.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.7%
Speak Spanish 9.3%
Speak English "very well" 5.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.2%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 83.4%
Speak language other than English 16.6%
Speak English "very well" 6.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 10.3%
Speak Spanish 3.6%
Speak English "very well" 1.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 6,379,441
Speak only English 4,934,518
Speak language other than English 1,444,923
Spanish or Spanish Creole 548,135
Speak English "very well" 322,170
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 225,965
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 56,105
Speak English "very well" 45,390
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,715
French Creole 64,408
Speak English "very well" 34,908
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29,500
Italian 35,253
Speak English "very well" 26,138
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,115
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 180,599
Speak English "very well" 106,139
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 74,460
German 16,030
Speak English "very well" 14,812
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,218
Yiddish 209
Speak English "very well" 86
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 123
Other West Germanic Languages 3,123
Speak English "very well" 3,009
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 114
Scandinavian Languages 4,525
Speak English "very well" 3,924
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 601
Greek 24,272
Speak English "very well" 17,805
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,467
Russian 37,354
Speak English "very well" 22,478
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,876
Polish 15,429
Speak English "very well" 10,307
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,122
Serbo-Croatian 2,201
Speak English "very well" 1,560
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 641
Other Slavic Languages 9,059
Speak English "very well" 6,623
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,436
Armenian 4,581
Speak English "very well" 3,576
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,005
Persian 7,056
Speak English "very well" 4,474
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,582
Gujarati 10,418
Speak English "very well" 6,140
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,278
Hindi 17,139
Speak English "very well" 13,978
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,161
Urdu 6,023
Speak English "very well" 5,023
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,000
Other Indic Languages 24,926
Speak English "very well" 16,804
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,122
Other Indo-European Languages 21,214
Speak English "very well" 13,647
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,567
Chinese 132,082
Speak English "very well" 67,256
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 64,826
Japanese 8,316
Speak English "very well" 4,796
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,520
Korean 12,685
Speak English "very well" 6,593
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,092
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 26,182
Speak English "very well" 12,823
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,359
Hmong 839
Speak English "very well" 531
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 308
Thai 2,076
Speak English "very well" 953
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,123
Laotian 2,586
Speak English "very well" 947
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,639
Vietnamese 37,928
Speak English "very well" 14,783
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 23,145
Other Asian Languages 30,258
Speak English "very well" 23,243
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,015
Tagalog 7,460
Speak English "very well" 6,216
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,244
Other Pacific Island Languages 1,655
Speak English "very well" 1,248
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 407
Navajo N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Native North American Languages 3,010
Speak English "very well" 1,476
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,534
Hungarian 1,248
Speak English "very well" 1,039
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 209
Arabic 40,549
Speak English "very well" 23,015
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17,534
Hebrew 6,456
Speak English "very well" 5,454
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,002
African Languages 40,009
Speak English "very well" 26,801
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,208
Other and Unspecified Languages 3,525
Speak English "very well" 1,516
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,009
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 77.4%
Field 308 22.6%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.8%
Field 310 41.2%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 80.9%
Field 315 19.1%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 54.2%
Field 316 45.8%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 74.1%
Field 319 25.9%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 58.8%
Field 322 41.2%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 92.4%
Field 325 7.6%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 41.1%
Field 328 58.9%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 96.3%
Field 331 3.7%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 86.7%
Field 334 13.3%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 73.4%
Field 337 26.6%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 60.2%
Field 340 39.8%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 66.8%
Field 343 33.2%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 70.9%
Field 346 29.1%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 73.1%
Field 349 26.9%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 78.1%
Field 352 21.9%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 63.4%
Field 355 36.6%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 58.9%
Field 358 41.1%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 81.6%
Field 361 18.4%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 83.4%
Field 364 16.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 67.4%
Field 367 32.6%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 64.3%
Field 370 35.7%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 50.9%
Field 373 49.1%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 57.7%
Field 376 42.3%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 52.0%
Field 379 48.0%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 49.0%
Field 382 51.0%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 63.3%
Field 385 36.7%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 45.9%
Field 388 54.1%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 36.6%
Field 391 63.4%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 39.0%
Field 394 61.0%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 76.8%
Field 397 23.2%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 83.3%
Field 400 16.7%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 75.4%
Field 403 24.6%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 N
Field 406 N
Field 409 100%
Field 409 49.0%
Field 409 51.0%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 83.3%
Field 412 16.7%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 56.8%
Field 415 43.2%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 84.5%
Field 418 15.5%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 67.0%
Field 421 33.0%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 43.0%
Field 424 57.0%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 905,470
Less than high school diploma 22.8%
High school diploma or GED 23.9%
Some college or associate's degree 17.5%
Bachelor's degree 17.1%
Graduate or professional degree 18.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 43.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 16.9%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2014 5.3%
% change: 1990-2000 2.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2014 71.7%
% change: 1990-2000 89.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 504,539
Less than high school diploma 20.1%
High school diploma or GED 24.8%
Some college or associate's degree 19.9%
Bachelor's degree 17.6%
Graduate or professional degree 17.5%
Noncitizens (%) 400,931
Less than high school diploma 26.2%
High school diploma or GED 22.7%
Some college or associate's degree 14.4%
Bachelor's degree 16.4%
Graduate or professional degree 20.3%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,748,881
Less than high school diploma 7.3%
High school diploma or GED 25.2%
Some college or associate's degree 25.0%
Bachelor's degree 24.6%
Graduate or professional degree 17.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -40.2%
% change: 1990-2000 -24.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 29.7%
% change: 1990-2000 25.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 622,757
Less than high school diploma 31.5%
High school diploma or GED 21.2%
Some college or associate's degree 16.9%
Bachelor's degree 15.0%
Graduate or professional degree 15.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 30.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 13.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,653,889
Less than high school diploma 12.5%
High school diploma or GED 28.2%
Some college or associate's degree 25.7%
Bachelor's degree 20.2%
Graduate or professional degree 13.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 464,366
Less than high school diploma 41.2%
High school diploma or GED 21.9%
Some college or associate's degree 15.4%
Bachelor's degree 10.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 24.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 9.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,498,325
Less than high school diploma 17.2%
High school diploma or GED 30.8%
Some college or associate's degree 24.1%
Bachelor's degree 17.4%
Graduate or professional degree 10.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2014 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS.