E.g., 02/24/2017
E.g., 02/24/2017

State Language Data - MA

Massachusetts

Language & Education
2015
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,087,773
Speak only English 19.4%
Speak English "very well" 37.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 43.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2015 44.7%
% change: 1990-2000 45.6%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2015 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2015 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 571,629
Speak only English 23.4%
Speak English "very well" 39.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 36.7%
Noncitizens 516,144
Speak only English 14.9%
Speak English "very well" 34.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50.6%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,341,266
Speak only English 88.8%
Speak English ""very well"" 9.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.0%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -19.3%
% change: 1990-2000 3.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 764,008
Speak only English 21.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,190,241
Speak only English 90.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 7.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 568,001
Speak only English 28.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,038,492
Speak only English 91.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 6.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,021,811
Speak only English 793,418
Speak language other than English 228,393
Speak English "very well"
188,247
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
40,146
Speak Spanish 105,837
Speak English "very well"
87,232
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
18,605
Ages 18-64 4,363,002
Speak only English 3,286,952
Speak language other than English 1,076,050
Speak English "very well"
644,724
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
431,326
Speak Spanish 407,391
Speak English "very well"
229,904
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
177,487
65 and Older 1,044,226
Speak only English 872,999
Speak language other than English 171,227
Speak English "very well"
63,837
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
107,390
Speak Spanish 37,007
Speak English "very well"
10,111
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
26,896
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 77.6%
Speak language other than English 22.4%
Speak English "very well" 18.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.9%
Speak Spanish 10.4%
Speak English "very well" 8.5%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.8%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 75.3%
Speak language other than English 24.7%
Speak English "very well" 14.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.9%
Speak Spanish 9.3%
Speak English "very well" 5.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.1%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 83.6%
Speak language other than English 16.4%
Speak English "very well" 6.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 10.3%
Speak Spanish 3.5%
Speak English "very well" 1.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 6,429,039
Speak only English 4,953,369
Speak language other than English 1,475,670
Spanish or Spanish Creole 550,235
Speak English "very well" 327,247
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 222,988
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 58,206
Speak English "very well" 46,457
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,749
French Creole 79,122
Speak English "very well" 44,060
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 35,062
Italian 34,143
Speak English "very well" 25,345
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,798
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 186,864
Speak English "very well" 108,139
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 78,725
German 18,576
Speak English "very well" 16,951
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,625
Yiddish 1,044
Speak English "very well" 771
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 273
Other West Germanic Languages 3,953
Speak English "very well" 3,604
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 349
Scandinavian Languages 3,610
Speak English "very well" 3,375
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 235
Greek 23,349
Speak English "very well" 16,264
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,085
Russian 41,267
Speak English "very well" 25,125
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,142
Polish 15,188
Speak English "very well" 10,091
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,097
Serbo-Croatian 4,822
Speak English "very well" 2,855
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,967
Other Slavic Languages 8,598
Speak English "very well" 6,687
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,911
Armenian 7,078
Speak English "very well" 5,777
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,301
Persian 6,254
Speak English "very well" 4,730
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,524
Gujarati 10,864
Speak English "very well" 6,418
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,446
Hindi 19,922
Speak English "very well" 15,944
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,978
Urdu 5,645
Speak English "very well" 4,358
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,287
Other Indic Languages 21,989
Speak English "very well" 13,511
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,478
Other Indo-European Languages 25,253
Speak English "very well" 15,686
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,567
Chinese 136,070
Speak English "very well" 64,081
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 71,989
Japanese 7,159
Speak English "very well" 4,446
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,713
Korean 17,442
Speak English "very well" 10,500
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,942
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 24,063
Speak English "very well" 13,756
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,307
Hmong 123
Speak English "very well" 123
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Thai 1,543
Speak English "very well" 663
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 880
Laotian 3,659
Speak English "very well" 1,715
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,944
Vietnamese 41,663
Speak English "very well" 15,928
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 25,735
Other Asian Languages 27,869
Speak English "very well" 19,534
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,335
Tagalog 8,054
Speak English "very well" 6,511
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,543
Other Pacific Island Languages 2,731
Speak English "very well" 1,153
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,578
Navajo N
Speak English "very well" N
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Native North American Languages 195
Speak English "very well" 109
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 86
Hungarian 2,415
Speak English "very well" 1,630
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 785
Arabic 33,468
Speak English "very well" 21,261
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,207
Hebrew 7,361
Speak English "very well" 6,446
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 915
African Languages 33,914
Speak English "very well" 23,935
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,979
Other and Unspecified Languages 1,959
Speak English "very well" 1,622
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 337
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 77.0%
Field 308 23.0%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 59.5%
Field 310 40.5%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 79.8%
Field 315 20.2%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 55.7%
Field 316 44.3%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 74.2%
Field 319 25.8%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 57.9%
Field 322 42.1%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 91.3%
Field 325 8.7%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 73.9%
Field 328 26.1%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 91.2%
Field 331 8.8%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 93.5%
Field 334 6.5%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 69.7%
Field 337 30.3%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 60.9%
Field 340 39.1%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 66.4%
Field 343 33.6%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 59.2%
Field 346 40.8%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 77.8%
Field 349 22.2%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 81.6%
Field 352 18.4%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 75.6%
Field 355 24.4%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 59.1%
Field 358 40.9%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 80.0%
Field 361 20.0%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 77.2%
Field 364 22.8%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 61.4%
Field 367 38.6%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 62.1%
Field 370 37.9%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 47.1%
Field 373 52.9%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 62.1%
Field 376 37.9%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 60.2%
Field 379 39.8%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 57.2%
Field 382 42.8%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 43.0%
Field 388 57.0%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 46.9%
Field 391 53.1%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 38.2%
Field 394 61.8%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 70.1%
Field 397 29.9%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 80.8%
Field 400 19.2%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 42.2%
Field 403 57.8%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 N
Field 406 N
Field 409 100%
Field 409 55.9%
Field 409 44.1%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 67.5%
Field 412 32.5%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 63.5%
Field 415 36.5%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 87.6%
Field 418 12.4%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 70.6%
Field 421 29.4%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 82.8%
Field 424 17.2%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 945,717
Less than high school diploma 21.3%
High school diploma or GED 24.3%
Some college or associate's degree 17.6%
Bachelor's degree 17.2%
Graduate or professional degree 19.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 43.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 17.8%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2015 2.9%
% change: 1990-2000 2.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2015 83.9%
% change: 1990-2000 89.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2015 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2015 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 528,036
Less than high school diploma 19.1%
High school diploma or GED 23.7%
Some college or associate's degree 20.6%
Bachelor's degree 18.1%
Graduate or professional degree 18.5%
Noncitizens (%) 417,681
Less than high school diploma 24.2%
High school diploma or GED 25%
Some college or associate's degree 13.9%
Bachelor's degree 16%
Graduate or professional degree 20.9%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,760,927
Less than high school diploma 6.8%
High school diploma or GED 25.4%
Some college or associate's degree 25.1%
Bachelor's degree 24.6%
Graduate or professional degree 18.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -43.6%
% change: 1990-2000 -24.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 30.7%
% change: 1990-2000 25.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 622,757
Less than high school diploma 31.5%
High school diploma or GED 21.2%
Some college or associate's degree 16.9%
Bachelor's degree 15.0%
Graduate or professional degree 15.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 30.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 13.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,653,889
Less than high school diploma 12.5%
High school diploma or GED 28.2%
Some college or associate's degree 25.7%
Bachelor's degree 20.2%
Graduate or professional degree 13.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 464,366
Less than high school diploma 41.2%
High school diploma or GED 21.9%
Some college or associate's degree 15.4%
Bachelor's degree 10.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 24.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 9.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,498,325
Less than high school diploma 17.2%
High school diploma or GED 30.8%
Some college or associate's degree 24.1%
Bachelor's degree 17.4%
Graduate or professional degree 10.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2015 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2015 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2015 ACS.