E.g., 09/28/2016
E.g., 09/28/2016

State Language Data - CA

California

Language & Education
2014
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 10,462,407
Speak only English 10.1%
Speak English "very well" 34.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 55.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2014 15.2%
% change: 1990-2000 42.0%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English. Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS.

 
Naturalized citizens 5,146,030
Speak only English 12.9%
Speak English "very well" 40.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 46.3%
Noncitizens 5,316,377
Speak only English 7.4%
Speak English "very well" 27.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 65.1%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 25,828,401
Speak only English 74.7%
Speak English ""very well"" 21.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3.4%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -26.9%
% change: 1990-2000 44.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 8,762,060
Speak only English 10.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 31.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 22,654,569
Speak only English 79.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 15.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,337,062
Speak only English 12.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 31.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 56.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 21,014,236
Speak only English 85.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 10.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 6,639,887
Speak only English 3,722,108
Speak language other than English 2,917,779
Speak English "very well"
2,379,439
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
538,340
Speak Spanish 2,292,664
Speak English "very well"
1,887,296
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
405,368
Ages 18-64 24,660,829
Speak only English 13,413,279
Speak language other than English 11,247,550
Speak English "very well"
6,224,044
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
5,023,506
Speak Spanish 7,332,514
Speak English "very well"
3,908,102
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
3,424,412
65 and Older 4,990,092
Speak only English 3,226,121
Speak language other than English 1,763,971
Speak English "very well"
601,649
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
1,162,322
Speak Spanish 812,115
Speak English "very well"
277,089
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
535,026
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 56.1%
Speak language other than English 43.9%
Speak English "very well" 35.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.1%
Speak Spanish 34.5%
Speak English "very well" 28.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.1%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 54.4%
Speak language other than English 45.6%
Speak English "very well" 25.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 20.4%
Speak Spanish 29.7%
Speak English "very well" 15.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 13.9%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 64.7%
Speak language other than English 35.3%
Speak English "very well" 12.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 23.3%
Speak Spanish 16.3%
Speak English "very well" 5.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 10.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 36,290,808
Speak only English 20,361,508
Speak language other than English 15,929,300
Spanish or Spanish Creole 10,437,293
Speak English "very well" 6,072,487
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,364,806
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 121,208
Speak English "very well" 104,132
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17,076
French Creole 8,028
Speak English "very well" 5,899
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,129
Italian 61,841
Speak English "very well" 49,779
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,062
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 68,801
Speak English "very well" 47,054
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21,747
German 99,077
Speak English "very well" 87,641
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,436
Yiddish 3,608
Speak English "very well" 3,303
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 305
Other West Germanic Languages 26,689
Speak English "very well" 22,452
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,237
Scandinavian Languages 23,725
Speak English "very well" 20,852
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,873
Greek 22,395
Speak English "very well" 17,966
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,429
Russian 158,592
Speak English "very well" 85,643
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 72,949
Polish 18,661
Speak English "very well" 14,980
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,681
Serbo-Croatian 20,647
Speak English "very well" 14,411
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,236
Other Slavic Languages 35,778
Speak English "very well" 21,994
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,784
Armenian 196,733
Speak English "very well" 106,064
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 90,669
Persian 202,297
Speak English "very well" 122,306
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 79,991
Gujarati 50,575
Speak English "very well" 34,657
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,918
Hindi 170,282
Speak English "very well" 136,675
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33,607
Urdu 50,235
Speak English "very well" 36,286
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,949
Other Indic Languages 210,299
Speak English "very well" 130,553
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 79,746
Other Indo-European Languages 48,227
Speak English "very well" 32,022
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,205
Chinese 1,111,125
Speak English "very well" 480,296
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 630,829
Japanese 139,926
Speak English "very well" 74,082
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 65,844
Korean 383,651
Speak English "very well" 160,611
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 223,040
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 73,931
Speak English "very well" 34,704
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39,227
Hmong 75,707
Speak English "very well" 40,298
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 35,409
Thai 50,239
Speak English "very well" 18,179
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 32,060
Laotian 38,665
Speak English "very well" 21,116
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17,549
Vietnamese 545,256
Speak English "very well" 220,765
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 324,491
Other Asian Languages 192,019
Speak English "very well" 136,336
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 55,683
Tagalog 797,096
Speak English "very well" 533,828
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 263,268
Other Pacific Island Languages 128,706
Speak English "very well" 81,765
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 46,941
Navajo 1,743
Speak English "very well" 1,668
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 75
Other Native North American Languages 7,137
Speak English "very well" 6,666
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 471
Hungarian 12,221
Speak English "very well" 8,100
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,121
Arabic 178,920
Speak English "very well" 112,551
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 66,369
Hebrew 43,586
Speak English "very well" 37,106
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,480
African Languages 74,227
Speak English "very well" 50,454
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 23,773
Other and Unspecified Languages 40,154
Speak English "very well" 19,451
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,703
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 56.1%
Field 308 43.9%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.2%
Field 310 41.8%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 85.9%
Field 315 14.1%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 73.5%
Field 316 26.5%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 80.5%
Field 319 19.5%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 68.4%
Field 322 31.6%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 88.5%
Field 325 11.5%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 91.5%
Field 328 8.5%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 84.1%
Field 331 15.9%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 87.9%
Field 334 12.1%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 80.2%
Field 337 19.8%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 54.0%
Field 340 46.0%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 80.3%
Field 343 19.7%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 69.8%
Field 346 30.2%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 61.5%
Field 349 38.5%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 53.9%
Field 352 46.1%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 60.5%
Field 355 39.5%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 68.5%
Field 358 31.5%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 80.3%
Field 361 19.7%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 72.2%
Field 364 27.8%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 62.1%
Field 367 37.9%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 66.4%
Field 370 33.6%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 43.2%
Field 373 56.8%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 52.9%
Field 376 47.1%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 41.9%
Field 379 58.1%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 46.9%
Field 382 53.1%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 53.2%
Field 385 46.8%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 36.2%
Field 388 63.8%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 54.6%
Field 391 45.4%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 40.5%
Field 394 59.5%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 71.0%
Field 397 29.0%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 67.0%
Field 400 33.0%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 63.5%
Field 403 36.5%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 95.7%
Field 406 4.3%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 93.4%
Field 409 6.6%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 66.3%
Field 412 33.7%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 62.9%
Field 415 37.1%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 85.1%
Field 418 14.9%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 68.0%
Field 421 32.0%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 48.4%
Field 424 51.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 9,445,071
Less than high school diploma 34.8%
High school diploma or GED 19.8%
Some college or associate's degree 18.9%
Bachelor's degree 16.5%
Graduate or professional degree 10.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 71.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 30.7%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2014 6.5%
% change: 1990-2000 44.3%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2014 66.3%
% change: 1990-2000 76.6%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 4,906,826
Less than high school diploma 23.7%
High school diploma or GED 19.2%
Some college or associate's degree 23.7%
Bachelor's degree 21.2%
Graduate or professional degree 12.2%
Noncitizens (%) 4,538,245
Less than high school diploma 46.8%
High school diploma or GED 20.5%
Some college or associate's degree 13.8%
Bachelor's degree 11.4%
Graduate or professional degree 7.6%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 16,209,221
Less than high school diploma 8.1%
High school diploma or GED 21.5%
Some college or associate's degree 35.6%
Bachelor's degree 22.0%
Graduate or professional degree 12.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -29.6%
% change: 1990-2000 -19.6%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 34.8%
% change: 1990-2000 19.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 7,001,114
Less than high school diploma 44.1%
High school diploma or GED 15.9%
Some college or associate's degree 18.6%
Bachelor's degree 13.6%
Graduate or professional degree 7.9%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 62.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 26.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 14,310,486
Less than high school diploma 13.0%
High school diploma or GED 22.2%
Some college or associate's degree 35.6%
Bachelor's degree 18.9%
Graduate or professional degree 10.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,635,457
Less than high school diploma 46.1%
High school diploma or GED 16.1%
Some college or associate's degree 19.5%
Bachelor's degree 11.7%
Graduate or professional degree 6.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 48.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 19.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 14,044,712
Less than high school diploma 16.4%
High school diploma or GED 24.4%
Some college or associate's degree 34.2%
Bachelor's degree 16.4%
Graduate or professional degree 8.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2014 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N indicates that an estimate could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are from the Census Bureau's pooled 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS). Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2014 ACS.